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History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925

[This information is from the 4-volume, 3,623-page History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925, edited by Nelson Greene (Chicago: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1925). It is in the Reference collection of the Schenectady County Public Library at R 974.7 G81h. This online edition includes lists of portraits, maps and illustrations. As noted by Paul Keesler in his article, "The Much Maligned Mr. Greene," some information in this book has been superseded by later research or was provided incorrectly by local sources.]

[Publishing note: The page numbers in the first two volumes (covering Mohawk Valley history) are numbered consecutively, while the third and fourth (containing biographical sketches of notable residents) are numbered individually. The contents pages of Volume I use Roman numerals but continue the same numbering (pp. 29-44) after the foreward. The contents pages of Volume II use Arabic numerals.]

Biographies | Illustrations | Maps | Portraits

Volume One

Foreword (2-28)

Chapter 1: The Geology of the Mohawk Valley.

The Mohawk Valley physiographic province and its geographical importance — The Adirondack and Catskill regions of the Mohawk Valley — Little Falls Gorge, "the Gateway to the West" — Its mighty potholes — Little Falls "diamonds" — The Devonic fossil trees of Schoharie County, the world's oldest forest — The eastward and the westward flowing preglacial Mohawks — Glacial and postglacial periods — The mighty "Iromohawk", which made the Mohawk Valley of today. (45-82)

Chapter 2: Lower Mohawk Valley Geological History.

The preglacial lower Mohawk River — Changes of the Ice Age in the lower valley — Outlets of the postglacial Mohawk into Lake Albany — The geology of Cohoes Falls — The Cohoes Mastodon and Pleistocene animals of the Mohawk Valley. (83-91)

Chapter 3: Mohawk Valley Rocks.

A description of the rock formations which bear Mohawk Valley names — the Little Falls dolomite; Trenton limestone and shale; Canajoharie shale; Utica shale; Frankfort shale and sandstone; Oneida conglomerate; Clinton shale, sandstone, limestone and iron ore; Cobleskill limestone; Helderberg limestone; Oriskany sandstone. (92-99)

Chapter 4: The Mohawk Valley Drainage System.

Its streams and lakes — Mohawk River and watershed — Valley lake systems — Points of interest — Topography, mountain and hill systems, peaks and plateaus. (100-106)

Chapter 5: The Mohawks.

The Mohawks, elder brothers of the Iroquois Confederacy and keepers of the eastern gate of the long house of the Five Nations — Eskimo, Algonquin and Mound Builder occupation of the region of present New York State — Strategic position and natural advantages of New York — Parker's hypothesis of the Iroquois invasion — Hochelaga, the great Mohawk castle on the St. Lawrence, at present Montreal — The Mohawks retreat to Vermont, 1570 — Beginning of the Hundred Years' War — Onondagas, Oneidas and Mohawks join the Senecas and Cayugas on the Iroquois trail — First four Mohawk castles in the Valley — Where Hiawatha and Dekanawida met and found refuge with the Mohawks — Mohawk and Iroquois life, habits, customs and warfare — Cartier's visit to the Mohawk castle of Hochelaga, 1535. (107-138)

Chapter 6: Chief Castles and Towns of the Mohawks.

Mohawk Indian castles in the Valley from the entrance of the Mohawks about 1580 to 1775, when they migrated to Canada — Description of Garoga by S. L. Frey — A vocabulary of the Mohawks in 1634. (139-153)

Chapter 7: Mohawk Indian Sites about Fort Plain, by Douglas Ayres, Jr.

Prehistoric village sites — Specimens found — A primeval pine-oak hill — Mohawk-Mohican battle ground — Wagner's hollow site — Ceremonial site near Freysbush Road. (154-161)

Chapter 8: Legend of the "Great Peace."

The legend of Dekanawida and Hayonwatha, the two adopted Mohawk chieftains and their "great peace" — Gayanashagowa, the great binding law of the council of the great peace — comment on the versions of the legend. (162-166)

Chapter 9: Dekanawida and Hiawatha.

The heroic legend of the formation of the league of Five Nations — Hayonwatha's journey to Dekanawida at the Mohawk town near Cohoes Falls — Adodarho subdued — the two Iroquois heroes unite the tribes at Onondaga. (167-186)

Chapter 10: 1609-1615, Champlain's Battles with the Mohawks and Oneidas.

Samuel de Champlain, founder of New France — Epochal defeat of the Mohawks on the shore of Lake Champlain in 1609 — Invasion of the Iroquois country and attack upon the Oneida castle, 1615 — repulse and wounding of Champlain — Champlain's warfare against the Five Nations makes them the deadly enemies of New France and sows the seed of its eventual destruction. (187-191)

Chapter 11: Voyage of Hudson, 1609, and settlement of New Netherland, 1613.

Henry Hudson sails up the Hudson River to Albany in 1609 — A boat's crew of the Half Moon passes the sprouts of the Mohawk — Dutch traders at New York, 1610-1613 — Four houses there in 1613 — Block's crew at New York, winter of 1613-1614 — 1614, Formation of the United New Netherlands Company — Building of forts and trading posts at Manhattan and Fort Nassau, at present Albany, 1614 — Holland in New World. (192-202)

Chapter 12: History of Albany, the Mohawks and the Mohawk Valley, 1614-1664.

1614, Establishment of Fort Nassau by Captain Hendrick Corstiaensen of the United New Netherland Co. — New York and Albany, the oldest cities in the thirteen original states — Albany settled in 1614 — Six years before the landing of pilgrims — 1614, three Dutchmen explore the Mohawk River to Canajoharie — 1618, Council of Elkins with Mohawks, Mohicans and Delawares at Tawasentha — The first chain of friendship between the Dutch and the Mohawks — 1621, the Dutch West India Co. — 1623, Building of Fort Orange — 1625, Mohawk-Mohican War — Settlers flee to Manhattan — 1630, The great manor of Rensselaerwyck of 700,000 acres, embracing a small part of the lower Mohawk Valley — 1634, Van Den Bogaert's mission to the Mohawks and Oneidas — 1637, coming of Van Curler — 1642, Dominie Megapolensis arrives — First church — Father Jogues captured by the Mohawks — Treaty with the Mohawks — Fort Cralo built — Friction between the Director General and the Rensselaerwyck authorities — 1644, Father Jogues escapes from Mohawks — 1646, Jogues returns — Slain at Osseruenon (Auriesville) — 1648, First school at Beverwyck — Visit of Stuyvesant — 1649, First council held by the Dutch with the Mohawks at one of their castles,Osseruenon — 1658, Glen settles at Scotia on the Mohawk, first permanent white settlement in the Mohawk Valley — 1659-1660, Scourge of smallpox among the Mohawks — 1661, Schenectady settled — 1664, English conquer New Netherland — Colonel Cartwright visits Esopus, Fort Orange and Schenectady establishing English rule — Fort Orange becomes Albany and New Netherland becomes New York. (203-219)

Chapter 13: Van Den Bogaert's Journal — 1634-5.

Van Den Bogaert's journal of 1634-5 of his journey into the Mohawk and Oneida country — The first written description of the Mohawk Valley by the surgeon of Fort Orange — Sites of the Mohawk castles and the Oneida castle visited by three Dutchmen on their 200 mile midwinter trip. (220-239)

Chapter 14: The Mohawks and Their Country.

A description of the Mohawk Indians, their country and that about Fort Orange, written in 1644 by Dominie Johannes Megapolensis, Reformed Dutch pastor of the colony of Rensselaerwyck — Entire strangers to all religion. (240-251)

Chapter 15: Isaac Jogues — 1642-1646.

Capture of the Jesuit missionary on the banks of the St. Lawrence — Brought to the lower Mohawk castle of Osseruenon, on site of present Auriesville — Tortures of Father Jogues and his companions — Renee Goupil, companion of Jogues, murdered — Jogues escapes to France, 1644 — Received by the queen — Returns to the Mohawk mission, 1646 — captured by warriors of the Mohawk Bear Clan — Invited to a banquet and slain. (252-273)

Chapter 16: History of the Mohawks — 1646-1666.

The Five Nations conquer the Indians of northeastern North America — 1655, Glen buys lands of the Mohawks — 1658, Glen settles at Scotia — 1659-1660, Smallpox scourge among the Mohawk castles — 1660, Turtle Clan moves to Gandawague 1661, Schenectady settled by Hollanders — 1661, Hertel a captive among the Mohawks — 1666, De Courcelle's expedition against the Mohawks fails. (274-279)

Chapter 17: De Tracy's Raid of 1666.

De Tracy's French, Canadian and Indian force burns the south side Mohawk castles of Gandawague, Andagoron, and Tionnontogen — French proclaim sovereignty over the Mohawk River country — The Mohawks are humbled. (280-284)

Chapter 18: New North Side Mohawk Towns — 1667.

Jesuit missions — Caughnawaga, Canagorha, Canajohara and Tionnontogen or Tionondogue, described by Greenhalgh in 1677 — Chronology of Jesuit missions among the Mohawks from 1648 to 1684. (285-295)

Chapter 19: North Side Mohawk Castles and Jesuit Missions 1666-1693.

1669, Condolence ceremony at Caughnawaga — Father Pierron in a controversy — Induces the Mohawks to renounce the worship of Aireskoi — 1670, Father Pierron in charge at Tionnontogen, Father Boniface at Caughnawaga — 1671, Father Bruyas in charge of the Mohawk missions — Christmas at St. Peter's, Caughnawaga — 1684, Father De Lamberville at Caughnawaga — Kryn leads forty Mohawk converts to Canada — 1675, Father Hennepin visits the Mohawk missions — 1676, Tegahkwita's baptism — 1677, Tegahkwita escapes to Canada — 1677, Visit of Greenhalgh — Adario, the Huron "rat," starts war — 1689, The Iroquois attack Montreal, killing and capturing 400 — Beginning of King William's war. (296-307)

Chapter 20: Battle of Kinquariones, 1669.

Mohican attacks on Caughnawaga, 1669 — Repulse of the invaders — Battle of Kinquariones, near Hoffmans — Mohawks, led by their war chief, the "Great Kryn", rout the Mohicans and kill their chief, Chicatabutt — Account of the conflict by Father Pierron, French Jesuit missionary at Caughnawaga, near present Fonda. (308-312)

Chapter 21: Settlement of Schenectady, 1661-1662.

Van Curler's letter to Governor Stuyvesant petitioning for a grant of the Groote Vlachte — The Mohawk grant of Schenectady lands in the original deed in Dutch and its translation — Objection to settlement — Van Curler's compromise agreement of 1663 signed by the fourteen Schenectady proprietors. (313-325)

Chapter 22: Settlers at Schenectady, 1661-4.

The fifteen proprietors of the Schenectady patents of 1664 — Their Schenectady lands and heirs — Arent Van Curler, Philip Hendrickse Brouwer, Alexander Lindsay Glen, Symon Volckertse Veeder, Tuenis Cornelise Swart, Marten Cornelise Van Ysselstyne, Arent Andriese Bratt, Bastian de Winter, Pieter Jacobse Borsboom, Pieter Danielse Van Olinda, Jacques Cornelise Van Slyck, Jan Barentse Wemp, Gerrit Bancker, Willem Teller, Pieter Adriaense Van Woggelum — Other freeholders of Schenectady, from 1661 to 1700. (326-351)

Chapter 23: Schenectady and Lower Mohawk Valley — 1664-1690.

Death of Van Curler, the city's founder, in 1667 — The Reformed Dutch Church building presented by Alexander Glen in 1682 — Formation of Albany County in 1683 — Schenectady Patent of 1684 — Massacre and burning of city in 1690. (352-369)

Chapter 24: Beginning of King William's War — 1688-1690.

Accession of King William to the throne of England — Beginning of his war in America, Leisler's rebellion, 1689 — The Albany Convention — Disorder and disunion in Albany and Schenectady — January, 1690, French and Indian raiders start for Albany. (370-379)

Chapter 25: 1690 — Massacre and Burning of Schenectady.

French and Indian raiding party burn Schenectady and massacre its inhabitants, Saturday night, February 8, 1690 — One of three expeditions sent against the English colonial frontiers, by Frontenac — The palisades gates left open and unguarded — Sixty settlers killed and twenty-seven captured — Midnight ride of Symon Schermerhoorn to Albany — Adam Vrooman's heroic defense of his home — Many lives spared through the intercession of Captain Johannes Sanders Glen of Scotia — Some survivors remain and start rebuilding — Letter by M. de Monseignat to Madame Maintenon, describing the raid and massacre — List of killed and prisoners. (380-399)

Chapter 26: Schenectady and the Mohawk Valley — 1690-1693.

Schenectady rebuilt after the massacre — Goods sent to the impoverished survivors — The Leisler rebellion and its turmoil in Albany and Schenectady — Fort Orange surrendered to Leisler by the Albany Convention, March 4, 1690 — Tahajadoris, the Mohawk chieftain, preaches American colonial union at Albany Council of May 3, 1690 — Expedition against Canada fails in 1690 — Schuyler strikes hard blow at New France in 1691 — Building of the Stevens house at Aal Plaats (Ael Place) in 1693 — Raids of King William's War about Albany and Schenectady, 1690-1693 — The frontier population much depleted. (400-408)

Chapter 27: 1693, French Destroy the Mohawk Castles.

Canadian French-Indian war party of 625 burn the Mohawk castles of Caughnawaga, Canagora and Tionnontogen — Midnight attack and sharp fight at Tionnontogen, the upper Mohawk castle — 300 Mohawks made prisoners — Major Schuyler pursues with Albany County militia, Mohawks and Oneidas — Battle of Saratoga — Enemy escapes — Destruction of their castles greatly weakens the Mohawks' power — Building of the Mohawk tribal castle of Og-sa-da-ga, at present Tribes Hill. (409-416)

Chapter 28: Schenectady and the Mohawk Valley, 1693-1701.

Desertion of Schenectady garrison, 1696 — Battle between deserters and militia — Frontenac destroys Onondaga and Oneida castles — End of King William's War, 1698 — Lord Bellomont, governor of New York, visits Schenectady in state, 1698 — Return of former settlers and increase in population after the war — New Mohawk castles built at present Fort Hunter, Fort Plain and Indian Castle, 1700. (417-429)

Chapter 29: Mohawk Valley and Schenectady — 1701-1713.

Queen Anne's War — Building of the Second Reformed Dutch Church of Schenectady, 1703 — Building of Queen Anne's Fort at Schenectady, 1704 — Five Mohawk chiefs accompany Colonel Peter Schuyler to London — Colonel Nicholson's expedition against Canada stopped by failure of the British-American naval expedition, 1711 — Building of Fort Hunter, 1711 — Schenectady ceases to be the frontier outpost of the province of New York — Palatines settle along the Schoharie, 1712. (430-450)

Chapter 30: A Review of Schenectady and the Mohawk Valley — 1711.

At the time of the building of Fort Hunter — Close of Queen Anne's War — Roads dwindle into paths — Scarce two thousand people along our river — Schenectady people closely related. (451-456)

Chapter 31: Migration of Palatines to America.

Migrations of 1708-1709-1710-1712 to America and New York State — Residence in London — Assistance of Queen Anne and the British government — Settlement in Ireland, North Carolina, Virginia and New Jersey — First location in the province of New York at Newburgh, in 1709 — Great migration of 3,000 Palatines to New York in 1710, and location on the Hudson River. (457-467)

Chapter 32: The Schoharie Valley.

Description of the beautiful region of the watershed of the Mohawk River, in which the Palatines settled in 1712 — Origin of the name Schoharie. (468-474)

Chapter 33: Palatines Settle Schoharie — 1712.

Settlement on the Schoharie River and at Stone Arabia — Weiser's Dorf at present Middleburgh; Hartman's Dorf — Brunnen Dorf at present Schoharie — The Karighondonte tribe of Indians supply the starving settlers with corn — 1713, One hundred Palatine families from east camp on the Hudson, arrive — Early dwellings — The Schoharie Valley a part of the Mohawk watershed and connected both geographically and historically with the story of the Mohawk Valley — Palatine names. (475-484)

Chapter 34: Early Days of the Schoharie Settlement — 1712-1723.

Life of the pioneers — Nicholas Bayard driven away — Seven partners secure Schoharie lands claimed by Palatines — Murder of Truax — Sheriff Adams of Albany County mobbed and nearly killed — Delegates sent to England fail in their mission — Weiser and his friends leave Schoharie for Pennsylvania — Emigration to the Mohawk River — Dutch settle on the Schoharie. (485-495)

Chapter 35: Settlement of Stone Arabia and German Flats, 1723-1725.

Palatines settle at Stone Arabia and German Flats — Stone Arabia and Burnetsfield Patents and patentees — Spelling of names. (496-509)

Chapter 36: Mohawk Valley History from 1713 to 1744.

Events and life in the Valley in the great constructive peace period between the close of Queen Anne's War and the beginning of King George's, or the Old French War — 1727, Freedom of trade in Schenectady and the beginning of batteaux traffic on the Mohawk. (510-529)

Chapter 37: Settlement of Cherry Valley — 1740.

1740, Settlement of Cherry Valley by John Lindsay and family — A Scotch-Irish frontier village on the Susquehanna — Mohawk divide — Rev. Samuel Dunlop's Cherry Valley school — Settlement of Springfield, Mud or Summit Lake, Little Lakes, and the headwaters of the Susquehanna — The old England district. (530-533)

Chapter 38: Sir William Johnson and the Mohawk Valley — 1738-1748.

William Johnson settles in present Amsterdam, south side — Marries Catherine Weissenberg — Buys land on north side — builds Mount Johnson in the present western section of Amsterdam and removes there — Made a justice of the peace of Albany County — Adopted as a chief of the Mohawk tribe — made Colonel of militia and the Six Nations. (534-544)

Chapter 39: Battle of Beukendaal.

Schenectady militia ambushed by Canadian Indians — twenty slain, thirteen made prisoners and many wounded — Only battle of the Old French War in the Mohawk Valley. (545-547)

Chapter 40: Agriculture in Albany County — 1740-1750.

Kalm's visit to Cohoes Falls in 1749; to Colonel Johnson in 1750 — William Smith's description of Schenectady and the Mohawk Valley in 1756. (548-555)

Chapter 41: A Period of Growth and Development — 1748-1755.

Period between the old French war and the beginning of the great French and Indian War — Dispute as to first settlement in present Canajoharie village. (556-563)

Chapter 42: Battle of Lake George — 1755.

Victory of American-British army over French-Canadian-Indian army, under Baron Dieskau — Johnson's scouting party ambushed — Hendrick slain — French-Indian attack on Johnson's camp repulsed — Johnson wounded and General Lyman commands — General Johnson made a baronet and presented with 5,000 pounds by the British crown for his services in the victory of Lake George, which had heartening effect on the colonists — Mohawk Valley militia and Mohawk Indians, form detachments of General Johnson's army. (564-573)

Chapter 43: Capture of Fort Bull — 1756.

Assault on, and capture of Fort Bull, and massacre of its garrison by French-Indian war party — Building of Fort Canajoharie, Fort Hendrick, Fort Herkimer, 1756-1758. (574-580)

Chapter 44: 1757 — Massacre at German Flats.

Assault and massacre by French-Indian raiders at German Flats (Herkimer), 1757 — Attack on the Fort Herkimer neighborhood, 1758 — Fort Herkimer garrison attacks and routs invaders in a hot skirmish. (581-587)

Chapter 45: 1757 — Third Year of War.

In the fourth year of the Seven Years' War — Leads twelve hundred militia and Indians to Lake George, March 21st — At German Flats, April 1st to 9th awaiting expected attack — Fight between drunken British soldiers and Mohawks at Fort Hunter — Johnson keeps Mohawks loyal — Leads militia and Indians to succor Colonel Monro at Fort William Henry — Webb prevents aid — Massacre of Fort William Henry. (588-593)

Chapter 46: French Spy in Mohawk Valley.

1757 — French spy's description of the highway and waterway from Oswego to Albany, covering the Mohawk Valley from Wood Creek to Schenectady — account of forts, towns, population, etc. — The best review of the Mohawk River country in colonial days. (594-603)

Chapter 47: 1758 — Ticonderoga and Fort Frontenac.

1758 — Sir William Johnson in command of Indians joins Abercrombie's attack on French Fort Ticonderoga — Disastrous defeat of attacking party — Colonel Bradstreet's expedition against French Fort Frontenac through the Mohawk Valley — Fort Frontenac captured August 27th — British-American armies capture Louisburg and Fort Duquesne, which is renamed Fort Pitt. (604-608)

Chapter 48: 1759 — Gen. Johnson captures Fort Niagara.

British-American expedition against French Fort Niagara passes west through Mohawk Valley — Commanded by General John Prideaux, with General Sir William Johnson, second in command — English Fort Oswego rebuilt — French attack on Oswego repulsed — General Prideaux killed, and General Johnson succeeds to the command — Johnson's army defeats French-Indian relief force — Fort Niagara surrenders. (609-614)

Chapter 49: 1760, General Amherst Conquers Canada by Way of the Mohawk Valley.

Defeat of the British before Quebec April 27, 1760 — Amherst's plan to conquer Montreal, by way of the Mohawk, Champlain, and St. Lawrence Valleys — May 9, relief of Quebec by British fleet — Captain Fonda sent to rouse the Six Nations — June 22, General Amherst's American and British army of 10,000 moves west through the Mohawk Valley to Oswego — August 10, Amherst's army sails from Oswego — September 8, 1760, Montreal capitulates and Canada becomes the British province of Quebec — Journal of Captain Jelles Fonda, covering the Amherst expedition — Johnson's letter to Pitt — Johnson commended by King George and Sir William Pitt, premier of Great Britain. (615-625)

Chapter 50: Schenectady in Colonial Wars.

Part of an interesting chapter on the military part played in America's colonial wars by the township of Schenectady, from 1700 to 1762 — from History of Schenectady County, by Hon. Austin A. Yates. (626-629)

Chapter 51: The Mohawk Valley from 1760 to 1774.

History of Sir William Johnson and the Mohawk Valley from the close of the French and Indian war in 1760 to the beginning of the Revolution in 1775 — Sir William a great colonial leader — The Valley's greatest period of building and development — The Tory-Whig party divisions — Sir William Johnson a strong loyalist — 1755-9, Settlement of Johnstown — 1760, First settlement at Rome — Building of the churches of St. George's, Schenectady, 1762; Caughnawaga, Fonda, 1763; Fort Herkimer, 1767; Indian Castle, 1769; Palatine, 1770; St. John's, Johnstown, 1771; Schoharie, 1772-1761, Indian troubles menace the frontier — Johnson's Detroit trip produces temporary calm — Mohawks angered by land frauds — 1762, Building of Johnson Hall; Sir William Johnson moves from Fort Johnson to Johnstown — 1763, Oswegatchie Indian village — 1763, Pontiac's War — 1764, Johnson holds great Indian council at Niagara — Settlement of New Petersburg, (East Schuyler) — Building of General Herkimer home — 1765, Schenectady made a borough — 1766, Kirkland a missionary at Oneida castle — 1766, Johnson holds council with Pontiac at Oswego, ending Pontiac's War — Formation of St. Patrick's Lodge, No. 4, F. and A. M., at Johnson Hall — Building of Guy Park — 1768, Great treaty of Fort Stanwix with Six Nations, settling Iroquois boundary line — 1772, Formation of Tryon County — Building of Johnstown court house and jail — 1773, First settlement of Utica — First settlement of Ephratah — 1774, Death of Sir William Johnson — 1774, Formation of St. John's Lodge, F. and A. M., No. 6, at Schenectady — 1774, August 27, formation of Palatine District Committee of Safety. (630-659)

Chapter 52: 1759 — Settlement of Johnstown and Building of Johnson Hall.

1755, Planning and settlement of Johnstown — 1762, Johnson Hall built — Sir William Johnson moves to Johnstown from Fort Johnson — Life at Johnson Hall — Johnson's progressive farming methods — His Scotch Highlander retainers — 1772, Tryon County and Johnstown its county seat — Sir William's family — John Johnson, Anna and Mary Johnson — The Tory aristocracy of Tryon County — The Butlers — Joseph and Mollie Brant, housekeeper for Sir William Johnson — The "brown lady" of Johnson Hall. (660-679)

Chapter 53: Formation of Tryon County — 1772.

The five county districts of Mohawk, Canajoharie, Palatine, German Flats, and Kingsland — Johnstown made the county seat — Court house and jail built. (680-687)

Chapter 54: 1772. Tryon County Religious Allegiance Document.

A peculiar, previously unpublished paper, swearing allegiance to George Third, on the grounds of Protestantism, as against Stuart pretensions — a seeming trick to stem the rising Whig tide along the Mohawk — signed by leading Whigs and Tories of Tryon County — Brief sketches of the signers — A final feature of colonial days, in the Mohawk Valley, and an evidence of the temporary general good feeling created by Sir William Johnson in the erection of Tryon County. (688-698)

Chapter 55: Colonial Life in the Mohawk Valley.

1772 — Mohawk Valley people and customs — Farming, social and religious life — Sports and pastimes of the days before the revolution — A Schenectady Dutch colonial dame's tea party. (699-711)

Chapter 56: 1774. Palatine District Committee Formed.

Organization of the Palatine District Committee of Safety at Louck's tavern in Stone Arabia, August 27, 1774 — Nucleus of the Tryon County Committee of Safety — Christopher P. Yates, John Frey, Isaac Paris, Jacob Klock, Peter Wagner, Andrew Fink, George Ecker, Harmanus Van Slyck, Anthony Van Vechten, Christopher W. Fox, Andrew Reber and Daniel McDougall compose the committee — Account of the first meeting from "the Colonel and the Major", by Samuel Ludlow Frey of Palatine Bridge — Lossing's account of the origin of the words, "Whig" and "Tory". (712-724)

Chapter 57: 1775, Beginnings of the Revolution in the Mohawk Valley.

Formation of the Tryon County Committee of Safety — First full meeting of the committee at Fall Hill, June 2, 1775 — Membership of the committee — Declaration of rights by the settlers of Cherry Valley and New Town Martin, July 13, 1775 — Sir John Johnson's and Colonel Guy Johnson's Tory activities — Mohawk Indian apprehensions — Patriot activities — clashes between Whigs and Tories. (725-738)

Chapter 58: 1775. Schenectady at the Beginning of the Revolution.

1775, May 6, formation of the Schenectady Township Committee of Safety — its members and early patriot activities — Fort Schenectady — The barracks and hospital — Schenectady, haven of refuge for the wounded and homeless from the ravaged Mohawk Valley to the westward — Washington's first visit to Schenectady in 1775. (739-754)

Chapter 59: 1776, Tryon County Militia Organization — Johnson, Disarmed, Flees to Canada.

General Schuyler's troops and the Tryon County Militia, under Col. Herkimer, concentrate at Caughnawaga — Review of 3000 troops, January 18, 1776 — Sir John Johnson and his Tory followers disarmed — Colonel Dayton sent to arrest Johnson, who flees to Canada with Tories — route taken through the heart of the Adirondacks — August 22, 1776, Tryon County Militia brigade organized — September 5, 1776, Col. Nicholas Herkimer commissioned brigadier-general of the Tryon County Militia by the state convention at Fishkill — Text of commission — Notable service of the Tryon County Militia — Record of Revolutionary service of militiaman George Bush — National events of 1776 — Biographical sketch of Gen. Philip Schuyler. (755-769)

Chapter 60: 1776-1777, Mohawk Valley Revolutionary Forts.

1776, Forts Schenectady, Hunter, Johnstown, Plain, Herkimer, Dayton, Stanwix — 1777, Forts Paris, Clyde, Plank; Fort at Cherry Valley; Upper, Middle and Lower Schoharie Forts — Forts Ehle, Kyser, Van Alstyne, Wagner, Klock, House — 1778, Fort Alden at Cherry Valley — 1781, Fort Willett. (770-785)

Chapter 61: 1777, August 6, Battle of Oriskany.

1777, Futile conference of Herkimer with Brant at Unadilla — Invasion of New York by British armies under General Burgoyne and Col. St. Leger — St. Leger moves from Oswego on Fort Stanwix which he invests, August 2 — Gen. Herkimer, at the head of the Tryon County Militia, marches to the relief of Fort — Mutinous conduct at Oriskany camp — Ambuscade and Battle of Oriskany, bloodiest conflict of the Revolution — Enemy flees, beaten after terrific five-hour fight — Willett's sortie from Fort Stanwix — Herkimer's army losses compel it to fall back down the River — General Herkimer mortally wounded — August 13, attack on the Schoharie Valley repulsed — Siege of Fort Stanwix, August 2-22 — Capt. Walter Butler, the notorious Tory, captured — General Herkimer dies August 17 — Han Yost Schuyler scares St. Leger's army into flight — August 22, Gen. Arnold's army raises siege of Fort Stanwix — Sketches of Herkimer, Gansevoort, Willett and Arnold — Diagnosis and medical description of Herkimer's case and wound by Dr. Albert Vander Veer. (786-830)

Chapter 62: 1777, August 6 — Oriskany Soldiers' Personal Experiences.

Accounts of Tryon County American soldiers of the battle of Oriskany — Material gathered by J. R. Simms from Mohawk Valley Revolutionary veterans — Thrilling incidents of this fierce forest fight — Indian atrocities, tortures and cannibalism. (831-841)

Chapter 63: The Oriskany Roster.

Roster of Tryon County Militia known to have fought at the Battle of Oriskany — A list of 457 names, as compared with 250 on the Oriskany battlefield monument. (842-849)

Chapter 64: 1777, Aug. 2-22, Siege of Fort Stanwix.

Account of the march of St. Leger's army from Oswego to Fort Stanwix and investment of the fort, by Col. Daniel Claus — Narrative of Lieutenant Colonel Marinus Willett — Diary of William Colbraith, a soldier of the garrison, from April 17 to August 22, 1777 — Making and raising of America's first battle flag — Thrilling incidents of the siege — Relief by Gen. Arnold's American brigade, August 23, 1777. (850-884)

Chapter 65: 1778 — Mohawk Valley Raids.

1778 — Indian council at Johnstown, March 9 — Manheim, Garoga, Springfield, Andrustown, German Flats raids — Battle Cobleskill, May 30, 1778 — Cherry Valley Massacre, Nov. 11, 1778. (885-901)

Chapter 66: Nov. 10, 1778 — Cherry Valley Massacre.

Gen. Hand warns Col. Alden of Brant's intended attack — Col. Alden scoffs at danger — Settlers beg for shelter in fort — Attack and massacre, on Nov. 11, by Tory and Indian raiders under Brant and Butler — 48 killed and 40 made prisoners — Hideous savagery of Tories and Indians — Fort Alden attacked nov. 11 and 12, when enemy withdraws — Valley relief force arrives too late — Capt. Warren's diary of the massacre. (902-920)

Chapter 67: 1779. Clinton's Overland Portage March from the Mohawk to Otsego Lake, by John Fea, Amsterdam.

The Sullivan and Clinton expedition of 1779 against the Six Nations — General John Clinton's army marches up the Mohawk Valley from Schenectady to Canajoharie; supplies and ordnance coming up the Mohawk in batteaux — Portage march, carrying over 200 batteaux on wagons, twenty miles from Canajoharie to Otsego Lake — Third, Fourth and Fifth New York Line, Fourth Pennsylvania Line, Sixth Massachusetts Line regiments, with artillery, battalion of Morgan's Riflemen, Tryon County and Schenectady Militia, wagoners and batteaux men form Clinton's portage army — Fifth New York stationed at Fort Plain; fourth Pennsylvania at Middle Schoharie Fort; Sixth Massachusetts at Fort Alden, Cherry Valley — Clinton's advance party leaves Schenectady, for Canajoharie, June 11, 1779; where Clinton camps with Third New York and Fourth Pennsylvania — Two Tory spies captured and hung there — Portage march begins June 18, 1779 — Fifth New York, forming right wing, goes over Otsquago trail — Third New York and Fourth Pennsylvania, forming center, guard supply and batteaux wagons over portage road — Fourth New York, forming left wing, moves over Cherry Valley road — Camps on the march — General Clinton reaches Otsego, July 2 — Clinton's American army celebrates third Independence Day anniversary at present Cooperstown, on Otsego Lake, July 4, 1779 — Dam built at Otsego Lake outlet — August 9, 1779, Clinton's army, with 200 batteaux, moves down the Susquehanna — August 22, Clinton joins Sullivan — August 29, Battle of Elmira won by Americans over Indians and Tories — Iroquois country ravaged — Mohawks removed from their Canajoharie and Ticonderoga castles to Albany — Chronological summary of Clinton's march, one of the greatest feats of arms during the Revolutionary War. (921-954)

Volume Two

Chapter 68: 1780, Raids at Cherry Valley, Johnstown, Fort Plain, Vrooman's Land. (972-1008)

Chapter 69: Johnson's Great Raid.

1780 — Johnson's great Schoharie and Mohawk invasion — October 18, Attack on Middle Schoharie Fort — Tim Murphy repulses Johnson's army — October 19, Battles of Stone Arabia and Klock's Field — Van Rensselaer's inefficiency — Enemy escapes — Fort Plain named Fort Rensselaer — Fort Plain blockhouse built — Fort Willett begun. (1009-1048)

Chapter 70: Colonel Willett, Valley Commander.

1781 — June, Colonel Willett, appointed commander of Mohawk Valley posts, makes Fort Plain his headquarters — Dreadful Tryon County conditions — July 9, Currytown raid — July 10, American victory at Sharon — Fort Stanwix abandoned. (1049-1068)

Chapter 71: Battles of Johnstown and Butler's Ford.

1781 — October 24, Ross and Butler's Tory and Indian raid in Montgomery and Fulton Counties — October 25, American victory at Johnstown — Willett's pursuit, killing of Walter Butler and defeat of the enemy at West Canada Creek, October 30 — Rejoicing in the Mohawk Valley. (1069-1084)

Chapter 72: Indian Raid at Fort Herkimer; Washington at Schenectady.

1782 — Last of the war in the Valley — Rebuilding and repopulation — Tory and Indian raid at Fort Herkimer — Tories — General Washington at Schenectady. (1085-1090)

Chapter 73: Willett's Expedition Against British Fort Oswego.

1783 — February 9, Colonel Willett's attempt to capture Fort Oswego — Privations of the American troops on the return trip — Colonel Willett's account — Washington's correspondence — Memorials to Willett. (1091-1101)

Chapter 74: Peace News Reaches Fort Plain.

1783 — April 17, messenger from General Washington reaches Fort Plain giving news of end of hostilities — April 18, Captain Thompson's journey to Oswego with a flag of truce — Received by Major Ross — Given list of Mohawk Valley American prisoners in Canada — Returns to Fort Plain. (1102-1109)

Chapter 75: Washington's Visit.

1783 — July, Washington's tour of Mohawk Valley and visit to Otsego Lake — His letters concerning trip — Stops at Fort Stanwix, Fort Herkimer, Palatine, Fort Plain, Cherry Valley, Canajoharie and Schenectady — Colonel Clyde — Final records of Fort Plain or Fort Rensselaer — Last revolutionary foray about Fort Plain. (1110-1126)

Chapter 76: 1775-1783 — Roster of Mohawk Valley Revolutionary Militia. (1127-1139)

Chapter 77: The Mohawk Valley After the Revolution.

1784-1800 — After the Revolution — Constructive period — Montgomery County and its divisions — Towns and their changes. (1140-1164)

Chapter 78: Schenectady After the Revolution. (1165-1174)

Chapter 79: 1784-1800 — Resettlement of Oneida County and Great Westward Emigration. (1175-1183)

Chapter 80: History of the Mohawk Valley from 1784 to 1825.

Great immigration and migration period through the Mohawk Valley, following the close of the revolution in 1783 — Settlement of Oneida County in 1784 — Resettlement and rebuilding of the Valley — Fort Stanwix Indian councils of 1784 and 1788 — Herkimer County formed, 1791-1795, Schoharie county formed — 1797, Western Inland Lock and Navigation Company improvements to Mohawk River navigation — 1795, Union College chartered — 1798, Schenectady made a city, Utica a village, Oneida county set off — 1800, Mohawk Turnpike, Seneca Road, Great Western Turnpike chartered — 1809, Schenectady County formed — 1812, Hamilton College chartered — 1812-1814, Great movement of troops through the Mohawk Valley in second war with England — 1817, Beginning of work on the Erie Canal at Rome — 1823-1825, Joseph C. Yates of Schenectady, Governor of New York — 1825, Erie Canal completed, Albany to Buffalo. (1184-1196)

Chapter 81: Mohawk River Navigation.

1609-1825 — Traffic and travel on the Mohawk River — Canoes, dugouts, skiffs, batteaux — Carries at Little Falls and Wood Creek — 1792, Inland Lock Navigation Company — 1795, Canals and locks at Little Falls, German Flats and Rome — Schenectady and durham boats and river packets — 1821-1825, Mohawk part of Erie Canal system — 1825, Erie Canal supersedes River as Valley waterway. (1197-1208)

Chapter 82: Mohawk Valley Highways.

1614-1925 — Mohawk Valley transportation — Indian trails — Horse and cart roads, highways (1700-1800) — Turnpikes and Mohawk Turnpike (1800-1840) — Seneca Road — Great Western Turnpike — County roads (1840-1885) — Bicycle routes (1885-1900) — Automobile roads (1900-1925). (1209-1221)

Chapter 83: Mohawk River Bridges.

1793-1913 — First bridges in the Mohawk Valley — Little Falls, 1790 — Utica, 1792 and 1797 — East Canada and West Canada Creek (Herkimer), 1793 — Herkimer, 1798 — Schoharie River at Fort Hunter, 1798 — Canajoharie, 1803 — Fort Plain (Sand Hill), 1806 — Schenectady, 1808 — Caughnawaga (Fonda), 1811 — Amsterdam, 1823 — Yosts, 1825 — Fonda-Fultonville, 1837 — Tribes Hill — Fort Hunter, 1852 — St. Johnsville, 1852. (1222-1230)

Chapter 84: The Mohawk Valley in 1810.

A very complete description of Mohawk Valley towns, townships and counties in 1810, compiled from "Spafford's Gazetteer of New York State," published in 1814. (1231-1265)

Chapter 85: Second War with England.

1812 — Second war with England — The militia system — Trainings. The Mohawk Valley Militia. (1266-1272)

Chapter 86: The Erie Canal, 1825-1918.

Construction of the Erie or "Grand Canal", 1817-1825 — First work began at Rome, July 4, 1817 — Construction work in the Mohawk Valley — Clinton's triumphal trip in the "Seneca Chief" in 1825 — A contemporary account of Fort Plain celebration. (1273-1287)

Chapter 87: History of the New York Central Railroad and Other Valley Lines.

History of the New York Central lines and railroad development in the Mohawk Valley — The Mohawk and Hudson Railroad, 1831 — The Utica and Schenectady Railroad, 1836 — N. Y. C. R. R. Mohawk division completed in 1839 by the construction of the Utica and Syracuse Railroad — First division of the New York Central Railroad, now the only six track railroad in the world and its greatest transportation route — New York Central R. R., 1853 — New York Central and Hudson River R. R., 1869 — New York Central lines, 1914 — George W. Featherstonhaugh, promoter of the M. & H. in 1812 — Webster Wagner's sleeping car, 1858; palace car, 1867 — West Shore Railroad, 1883, now part of the N. Y. C. R. R., Mohawk division — Adirondack, Black River and Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg divisions of the New York Central Railroad — The Delaware & Hudson, Boston and Maine, Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, New York, Ontario and Western Valley lines — Schenectady Railways Co. — New York State Railways Co. — Other Mohawk Valley steam, electric and gasoline railroads. (1288-1306)

Chapter 88: History of the Mohawk Valley from 1825 to 1865.

Record of Valley events from the opening of the Erie Canal to the end of the Civil War — Town building and manufacturing in the Mohawk Valley stimulated by the Erie Canal — Reform movements of the period, abolition, women's suffrage, and equal rights, temperance — Elizabeth Cady Stanton of Johnstown, pioneer American suffragist, joined by Susan B. Anthony, a school-teacher of Canajoharie, in 1850 — 1831, Building of the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad — 1836, Utica and Schenectady Railroad — End of turnpike traffic — Bouck and Seymour, New York State governors, from the Mohawk Valley — 1861-1865, the Mohawk Valley in the Civil War. (1307-1328)

Chapter 89: The Mohawk Valley in 1840.

1840 — Description of the Mohawk Valley from Haskell & Smith's Gazetteer of the United States — Six Mohawk Valley counties of Schenectady, Schoharie, Montgomery, Fulton, Herkimer, Oneida — Towns of Waterford, Cohoes, Schenectady (city), Amsterdam, Caughnawaga, Fonda, Fultonville, Johnstown, Gloversville, Canajoharie, Palatine Bridge, Fort Plain, St. Johnsville, Little Falls, Herkimer, Mohawk, Frankfort, Utica, Whitesboro, Rome, Camden, Boonville, Vernon, Clinton, Oneida Castle, Waterville, Bridgewater, Schoharie, Middleburg, Cobleskill. (1329-1339)

Chapter 90: History of the Mohawk Valley from 1865 to 1900.

The record from the close of the civil war to the beginning of the nineteenth century — The period of great manufacturing development — The Conkling-Blaine Republican feud from 1881 to 1888, results in election of Cleveland in 1884 — Mohawk Valley Republican politicians shape national history — Building of West Shore Railroad, 1883 — Spanish-American war, 1898 — Elihu Root appointed secretary of war, 1899. (1340-1350)

Chapter 91: History of the Mohawk Valley from 1900 to 1925.

Our Valley record from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the year of this publication — Period of electrical, automobile and highway development — Hon. Elihu Root and Owen D. Young, two Valley statesmen with world-wide influence — Root helps form the World Court — Young, a member of the 1924 Dawes Reparation Commission and the first agent general of reparations — 1925, The deeper Hudson and Valley ship canal possibilities — 1927-1933, Revolutionary sesquicentennials — 1925, Eclipse, cold wave, record snowfall and earthquake. (1351-1366)

Chapter 92: History of the Schenectady National Guard Companies. (1367-1375)

Chapter 92A: History of Company G, One Hundred and Fifth Infantry, N. G. S. N. Y., Amsterdam. (1376-1384)

Chapter 93: Company H, 105th infantry, N. G. S. N. Y.

1900-1925, Historical sketch of Company H, 105th Infantry, National Guard, State of New York, of Gloversville, written by Captain Bernard W. Kearney, its commanding officer — Service on the Mexican border in 1916 and overseas in the World War with the 27th Division — "Busters" of the famous Hindenburg line — In action in Belgium and France. (1385-1386)

Chapter 94: History of the National Guard Company of Mohawk.

Remington Rifle Corps of 1878 — 31st Separate Co. Infantry, N. G. S. N. Y., 1878 — Co. G, 2nd Regt., N. G. S. N. Y. (in the Spanish-American War, 1898) — Co. G, 4th Battalion, N. G. S. N. Y., 1900 — Co. M, 1st Regt. N. G. S. N. Y., 1905 — Mustered into federal service, July 15, 1917 — Camp at Weller Park, Mohawk — Co. M, 107th Regt., 27th Division, U. S. A., in the World War — One officer, 28 men killed in action overseas — Battles in Belgium and France — Co. M, 1st Pioneer Regt. — 237 men from the Mohawk Armory in World War service — New York Guard Company M, 10th Regt., Sept. 17, 1917 to 1921 — Co. I, 10th Regt., N. G. S. N. Y., April 17, 1922 — 1923 Winners of Remington and Du Pont trophies for National Guard company marksmanship. (1387-1392)

Chapter 95: The Utica National Guard Companies.

History of Co. K, Co. L, Battalion Headquarters Co., Third Battalion, 10th Infantry, National Guard of the State of New York — Troop G, 101st Cavalry, N. G. S. N. Y. — The Utica Citizens Corps, (1837), from which Co. L is descended — Three major generals and five brigadier generals of the Civil War, rise from the Citizens Corps — Deering Guards of 1873, the parent organization of Co. K — Records of the Utica National Guard companies in the Civil War, Spanish-American War and the World War. (1393-1398)

Chapter 96: Atwood's Airplane Flight Through the Valley.

1911 — August 14-25, Atwood's 1,266-mile flight from St. Louis to New York — Flies 95 miles from Syracuse to Nelliston, August 22, and stays overnight at Fort Plain — Flies 66 miles from Nelliston to Castleton, August 23, with a stop in Glen for repairs — "Following the Mohawk." (1399-1402)

Chapter 97: Mohawk River Water Power — 1895-1925.

Early water power development — 1811, Cohoes Manufacturing Co. — 1833, Herkimer Manufacturing and Hydraulic Co. — Amsterdam development on the Chuctanunda, 1848, 1855, 1865, 1875 — First Mohawk Valley hydro-electric plant at Dolgeville, 1897 — Colonial Dutch and English navigable stream laws — Mohawk Valley power companies — Cohoes Power and Light Corporation — Fulton County Gas and Electric Company — Utica Gas and Electric Company — Adirondack Power and Light Corporation — Its Amsterdam steam plant — Rotterdam Power Center — Conklingville Dam and Sacandaga Lake Reservoir — Mohawk Valley water storage and control system — Valley great super power system — 160,800 horsepower produced in Mohawk Valley hydro-electric plants in 1925. (1403-1421)

Chapter 98: The New York State Barge Canal.

Waterway development in New York State — The Barge Canal, its usefulness and possibilities — The Mohawk Valley the water gate between the Atlantic and Great Lakes. (1422-1436)

Chapter 99: History of the New York State Barge Canal.

1892, Barge Canal recommendation of state engineer Martin Schenck — 1900, report of the Greene canal commission, Barge Canal survey — 1903, passage of $101,000,000 Barge Canal Act — 1905, Work begun on Champlain canal section — Locks widened to 45 feet — Features of the Mohawk River canalization — Deeper Hudson and Mohawk River ship canal projects. (1437-1454)

Chapter 100: The New York Central Railroad through the Mohawk Valley.

New York Central Railroad and the New York Central lines, the most valuable property under one management in the world, with estimated physical assets of two billion dollars — The New York Central through the Mohawk Valley, the only six-track railroad in the world — The Mohawk Division, 1831-1839, the parent link of the New York Central lines — West Albany car shops and yards — Carman, South Schenectady, Rotterdam and Schuyler Junction railroad connections — Utica's model freight yards — New track locations at Rome, location of the Central's railroad tie creosoting plant — The great Castleton cutoff, extending from the Hudson at Selkirk into Schenectady County — Greatest freight yard development in the world. (1455-1464)

Chapter 101: The Mohawk Turnpike and Valley Highway System.

The old Mohawk Turnpike, Great Western Turnpike and Seneca Road — Branch roads leading from the turnpike to Sharon Springs, Lake George, Lake Champlain, Canada, Schoharie Valley, Sacandaga Trail, Sharon Springs, Cherry Valley, Otsquago Trail, Garoga Trail, Dolgeville, Paines Hollow, West Canada Creek, Leatherstocking Trail, Ilion Gulph, Frankfort Gulph, Saquoit and Oriskany Valleys, Black River, Thousand Islands, Lansing Kill, Lake Ontario — Enormous traffic over the Mohawk Turnpike — South Shore Mohawk Turnpike improvements. (1465-1480)

Chapter 102: The Birth and Development of Mohawk Valley Inventions and Manufacturing Industries.

Chronology and history of Mohawk Valley manufactures — 1800-1810, Gloversville leather and glove industry — 1800, Herkimer County cheese manufacture — 1808, Utica city district white goods — 1816, Eliphalet Remington makes first Remington rifle — 1831, Remington Works at Ilion — 1832, First American power knitting mill at Cohoes — 1836, Men's clothing manufacture at Utica — 1840, Westinghouse threshing machine perfected at Central Bridge, first Yale lock made at Newport, manufacture of carpets at Hagaman, removed to Amsterdam, in 1842 — 1842, Stove and furnace works at Utica — 1845, Schenectady locomotive works — 1848, Linseed oil at Amsterdam — 1858, Wagner sleeping car — 1859, Wagner elevated car roof, cotton (and later paper) bag manufacture at Canajoharie — 1863, Knit goods machinery at Cohoes — 1867, Wagner palace car — 1868, Broom factory at Amsterdam — 1869, George Westinghouse invents railroad air brake — 1870, Dairy machinery at Little Falls — 1870, Threshers at St. Johnsville — 1873, Remington typewriter at Ilion — 1874, First magazine rifle at Ilion — 1874, Alfred Dolge locates at Dolgeville (beginning of present felt shoe industry) — 1886, Desk manufacture at Herkimer, Edison Electric Company (now General Electric Company) removes to Schenectady — 1891, Beech-Nut Packing Company at Canajoharie, Charles B. Knox Gelatine Company, Inc., begins at Johnstown — 1897, First Mohawk Valley hydro-electric plant at Dolgeville — 1895, Bicycle manufacture, Little Falls. (1481-1501)

Chapter 103: Mohawk Valley Manufacturing Statistics. (1502-1504)

Chapter 104: Mohawk Valley Agriculture.

Farm statistics of the six Mohawk Valley counties of Schenectady, Schoharie, Montgomery, Fulton, Herkimer and Oneida in 1919 and 1909 — Development of the dairying industry — Topographical, agricultural and climatic details of the six Valley counties. (1505-1525)

Chapter 105: Free Schools and Education in the Early Days of the Mohawk Valley.

The gradual growth of the free school system of the State of New York — Levi Beardsley's Otsego County school of 1790 — The fight for free schools — John Bowdish of Montgomery County, introduces free school provision in the New York State Constitutional Convention of 1845 — Hon. Nathaniel Benton of Herkimer County, James Arkell of Montgomery County, and Andrew W. Young of Schoharie County, back up Bowdish in his good fight — Final full free school state provisions of 1892 — Today's school needs. (1526-1533)

Chapter 106: Union College, 1795-1925.

Petition to governor and legislature — Rev. Dirck Romeyn — Gen. Philip Schuyler — Dr. Nott — Dr. Raymond — Rev. Charles A. Richmond — "Mother of Fraternities" — Sir William Johnson promised aid. (1534-1541)

Chapter 107: Hamilton College.

1798, Hamilton Oneida Academy, founded by Rev. Samuel Kirkland — 1812, Hamilton College — From one building to seventeen — Its library — Publications. (1542-1549)

Chapter 108: The City of Cohoes.

Cohoes Falls — Early days — Part of the Colonie of Rensselaerwyck — 1811, the Cohoes Manufacturing Company — 1915, Cohoes Power and Light Corporation — 1832, Egbert Egberts begins the manufacture of knit goods — 1836, Peter Harmony establishes the Harmony Mills for the manufacture of cotton cloth — Hydro-electric development — 50,000 Horsepower produced from Cohoes Falls — Other city features — Home of the model of the Half Moon. (1550-1555)

Chapter 109: Schenectady — A Brief Social Study of an Industrial City. (1556-1565)

Chapter 110: Schenectady a Touring Center.

Schenectady, at the eastern gateway to the west through the Mohawk Valley and the crossing of two famous highways — Strategically located amidst eastern mountain ranges — Wonderfully equipped park camp used by 6,000 motorists last year. (1566-1571)

Chapter 111: The Great Western Gateway Bridge — Schenectady to Scotia. (1572-1575)

Chapter 112: Traffic Over the Great Western Gateway Bridge.

The Great Western Gateway Bridge, the eastern portal of the Mohawk Valley gateway to the west — Schenectady bridge history — The four Schenectady bridges over the Mohawk River — Facts and figures of interest relative to the great traffic passing over the Great Western Gateway Bridge and the old Mohawk Turnpike — Mr. Harry Furman of Schenectady the original advocate of the G. W. G. B. (1576-1579)

Chapter 113: General Electric Company.

Mohawk Valley is cradle of electrical industry — Wonderful work of General Electric Co. engineers at Schenectady, N. Y. — Dr. Charles P. Steinmetz, foremost writer of romance of electricity. (1580-1593)

Chapter 114: "W G Y"

First on the air, February 21, 1922 — One of three G. E. broadcasting stations in 1925, W G Y Schenectady, K O A Denver and K G O Oakland — W G Y, a central transmission point — Broadcasting novelties — The W G Y Players and Opera Company — Concerts — Baseball, football and other sports — Farmers' reports, religious services, educational features, topics of the day, etc. — Experimental station. (1594-1599)

Chapter 115: American Locomotive Works — Schenectady.

Growth of an important Mohawk Valley industry from its organization in 1848 — Edward Ellis and Walter McQueen, the moving spirits of locomotive manufacturing at Schenectady — Interesting locomotive construction development. (1600-1602)

Chapter 116: The City of Amsterdam.

1738-1925 — Sir William Johnson its first settler — Amsterdam an important industrial center — "The Rug City" — Interesting civic statistics — The suburbs of Cranesville, Hagaman and Fort Johnson — Guy Park, 1766 — Notes on Sir William Johnson's residence at Amsterdam and Fort Johnson. (1603-1617)

Chapter 117: Tribes Hill — Fort Hunter.

Twin villages at the junction of the Schoharie and Mohawk Rivers, Tribes Hill on the north shore, Fort Hunter on the south — Ogsadaga, the Mohawk tribal village, at Tribes Hill, 1693-1700 — Iconderoga, the lower Mohawk castle of the Wolf Clan, at Fort Hunter, 1700-1779 — Fort Hunter and Queen Anne's chapel, built in 1711 — Queen Anne's parsonage, built in 1712. (1618-1623)

Chapter 118: Fonda — Fultonville.

Fonda and Montgomery County — Cayadutta Creek and the sand plains — Caughnawaga — Fonda-Mohawk Indian history of Caughnawaga — Mohawk north shore castles — Mohican attack on Kahaniaga — Jesuit mission, 1667-1683 — French-Canadian invasion, 1693 — Caughnawaga settlement, 1713-1720 — First Valley Revolutionary clashes — Caughnawaga raid, 1780 — Major Fonda house — Home of the infamous Butlers — South shore Revolutionary raids. (1624-1636)

Chapter 119: The City of Johnstown, 1784-1925.

History of the county seat of Tryon, Montgomery and Fulton Counties, from the close of the Revolution to the end of the first quarter of the twentieth century — From a frontier fur-trading village to a twentieth century city of culture and civilization — Golden era of the years from 1784 to 1836 — Removal of county seat of Montgomery County to Fonda, 1836 — Formation of Fulton County, of which Johnstown is made the county seat, 1838 — Johnstown incorporated as a village in 1808 — First Mohawk Valley county fair at Johnstown in 1816 — hard times following the building of the Erie Canal in 1825 — The glove industry — Governor Throop, General Dodge, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the pioneer suffragist, natives of Johnstown — Old times and old buildings — 1870, Fonda, Johnstown and Gloversville Railroad opened, inaugurating an era of prosperity — 1905, Johnstown made a city — Johnstown of today. (1637-1655)

Chapter 120: The City of Gloversville.

"Uncle Sam's glove factory, the gateway city of the Adirondacks" — A study of the city's glove industry which makes eighty per cent. of America's gloves — "Gloversville gloves America" — Gloversville historical and general notes by the editor — The city's Adirondack neighborhood — Garoga and Canada Lakes — The Sacandaga Trail — The Sacandaga River, Sacandaga Vly, and Sacandaga Lake, the most southerly and accessible large Adirondack Lake — Gloversville the metropolis of the central southern Adirondack region. (1656-1670)

Chapter 121: Canajoharie — Palatine Bridge.

Round Top — Cherry Valley mountains — Canajoharie creek, falls and gorge — The "boiling pot" — Shaper pond, where Brooklyn Bridge stone was quarried — Roads to Sharon Springs, Cherry Valley, Otsego Lake, Cobleskill, Schoharie River and Catskill Mountains — Clinton's road — Beech-Nut Packing Company — Arkell and Smiths — Canajoharie Library James Arkell memorial building — East and west hills in Canajoharie — Palatine Bridge and "Grand Street", the Mohawk Turnpike — First settled by Hendrick Frey in 1689 — Hendrick Schrembling settles in Canajoharie in 1730 — Fort Frey, 1739 — Van Alstyne house built, 1750, favorite meeting place of the Tryon County Committee of Safety — Washington visits Canajoharie August 1, 1783 — Village incorporated in 1829 — Susan B. Anthony, a Canajoharie teacher, 1848-1850 — Sack industry founded by Senator James Arkell in 1859 — Sketch of "One Hundred Years of Canajoharie — 1829-1925", by Harry V. Bush, the Canajoharie historian. (1671-1699)

Chapter 122: Fort Plain — Nelliston.

At the outlet of Otsquago Creek and the beginning of the Otsquago Trail to Otsego Lake — The Dutchtown Road and Garoga Trail — 1634, Mohawk Indian villages of Osquage and Canawoge; 1700-1755, Tarajorees on Prospect Hill — 1720-1725, First settlers, Jacob Crouse and Lipe and Seeber families — Sand Hill neighborhood center — 1727, Ehle house, Nelliston — 1738-1742, Sir George Clarke — 1750, Canajoharie district reformed Dutch church at Sand Hill — 1776, Fort Plain built, later Fort Rensselaer (1780), Mohawk Valley revolutionary American headquarters (1780-1783), Colonel Willett in command — circle of supporting fortifications, Forts Windecker, Willett, Planck, Clyde, Klock, Wagner, Paris, Snell, Kyser, Van Alstine, Ehle — 1779, Colonel Dubois' Fifth New York Line, artillery, and company of Morgan's Riflemen form Clinton's right wing, over Otsquago Trail from Fort Plain, during American army portage march to Otsego Lake — 1780, Fort Plain raid, Johnson's great Mohawk Valley raid — 1783, General Washington's visit here — 1786, Paris-Bleecker house — 1817-1825, Village center moved from Sand Hill to Prospect Hill, during Erie Canal construction — 1825-1875, Important canal and farmers' market town — Old brick mansions — 1853, Fort Plain Seminary; 1879, Clinton Liberal Institute; burned, 1900 — Present agricultural, industrial, commercial and banking center. (1700-1740)

Chapter 123: The Village of St. Johnsville.

Settled about 1725 by Jacob Zimmerman and his wife, Anna, his Mohawk princess — Zimmerman Creek at St. Johnsville and Timmerman Creek, at upper St. Johnsville, named from first pioneer — Sketch of Zimmerman settlement by L. D. MacWethy — Probably named from St. John's Reformed Dutch Church, removed here in 1804 — History of St. Johnsville, 1725-1925 — Industries and location. (1741-1752)

Chapter 124: The Village of Dolgeville.

America's felt shoe manufacturing center — A modern and model American community, outgrowth of the genius of Alfred Dolge, who located here in 1874 — Settled, 1794 — Known as Green's Bridge and Brockett's Bridge — Incorporated as Dolgeville, 1891 — First Mohawk Valley hydro-electric development made at High Falls on the West Canada Creek in 1897 — Modern business developments — The West Canada Creek or Auskerada — Widest part of Mohawk Valley watershed. (1753-1758)

Chapter 125: The City of Little Falls.

Picturesque, productive Little Falls at the gateway to the west — Half-way point between New York and Buffalo — Civic and industrial progress — Added historical and descriptive data by the editor. (1759-1777)

Chapter 126: The Village of Herkimer.

The great flat, settled by Palatines, 1720-1725 — Known as "Palatine Village" — Burnetsfield Patent of 1725 — French and Indian raid and massacre of 1757 — Fort Dayton built here, 1776 — Start of march of Tryon County Militia to Oriskany battlefield, August 4, 1777 — Fort Dayton and Fort Herkimer western American outposts in 1781 — Washington here in 1783 — Herkimer County formed in 1791, with Herkimer, the county seat — Herkimer County in the Civil War — Industrial development — First wood pulp paper made here in 1866 by Warner Miller, elected united states senator in 1881 — 1885, Mohawk and Malone Railroad first link completed — 1886, Founding of largest desk factory in the world — Rome to Little Falls electric line — 1902, Mohawk and Oneonta Railroad — Herkimer County Historical Society — West Canada Creek and Kuyahoora Trail — Mirror Lake and Hasenclever Hills — Fort Herkimer Church — Statues General Herkimer and General Spinner — "Herkimer led, Herkimer leads." (1778-1797)

Chapter 127: The Village of Mohawk.

Gateway to the Susquehanna Valley — Shoemaker house — Helmer's famous ride — Andrustown Massacre — Grandma Filkins, one hundred and nine years old — Mohawk, 1725-1920. (1798-1804)

Chapter 128: The Village of Ilion.

Ilion Gulph — Ilion, 1725-1920 — Eliphalet Remington and the Remington rifle, 1816 — The Ilion Remington Works — Remington rifle in Civil War — First commercial typewriter — Birth of card index — World War — Ilion's rifle centennial. (1805-1817)

Chapter 129: Frankfort.

Barge Canal land cut — Historical, 1723-1925 — Frankfort match industry — Frankfort's industries and industrial opportunities — Frankfort Gulph — Dutch Hill, 680 feet above the Mohawk. (1818-1822)

Chapter 130: The City of Utica.

"Crossroads of New York" — Historical, political, industrial, commercial, educational, military and sociological study of Utica, from 1758 to 1925 — The city of parks and trees — A strategic commercial and transportation center, with varied industries — Textile center of America — A Mohawk Valley metropolis and one of America's great eastern cities, steadily increasing in population and importance. (1823-1855)

Chapter 131: New York State Masonic Home at Utica — Historical and Descriptive Sketch. (1856-1868)

Chapter 132: Hydro-electric Development in the Upper Mohawk Valley.

1897-1925, Sketch of the growth of the Utica Gas and Electric Company and its developments on the West Canada Creek at Trenton Falls, East Canada Creek and the Mohawk River at Little Falls — First Mohawk Valley hydro-electric development at Dolgeville in 1897 — Upper Mohawk Valley industrial power possibilities — Mohawk Valley super-power system. (1869-1873)

Chapter 133: The Village of Whitesboro.

Settled in 1784 — Postoffice established in 1796 — Village of "Whitehall Landing" in 1811 — 1802 to 1850, Whitesboro "half shire" town of Oneida County — Iron works established, 1871 — Knit goods manufacture, 1890 — Lock No. 20, eastern summit level lock of the Barge Canal — Whitesboro in 1920 a part of the Utica city district — Sauquoit Creek outlet. (1874-1876)

Chapter 134: The Village of Oriskany.

Oriskany Creek — Herkimer's Camp — Historical Oriskany battlefield. (1877-1879)

Chapter 135: The City of Rome.

Oriskany swamp of twenty years ago — Construction of Barge Canal — Development of the great brass and copper industry — Various other industries — The City of trees — "One-tenth of the copper used in the United States is manufactured in Rome" — Noteworthy twentieth century civic features. (1880-1885)


Our Mohawk Valley — Today and tomorrow. (1886-1889)

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