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History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925
Chapter 84: The Mohawk Valley in 1810.

[This information is from Vol. II, pp. 1231-1265 of History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925, edited by Nelson Greene (Chicago: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1925). It is in the Reference collection of the Schenectady County Public Library at R 974.7 G81h. This online edition includes lists of portraits, maps and illustrations. Some images have been relocated to the area in the text where they are discussed. As noted by Paul Keesler in his article, "The Much Maligned Mr. Greene," some information in this book has been superseded by later research or was provided incorrectly by local sources.]

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A very complete description of Mohawk Valley towns, townships and counties in 1810, compiled from "Spafford's Gazetteer of New York State," published in 1814.

Spafford's Gazetteer of New York State, published in 1814, describes our valley as it was in 1810. The following chapter consists of parts taken from that work, which give a very complete account of the Mohawk Valley at that period.

County Profiles: Schenectady | Schoharie | Montgomery | Herkimer | Oneida

The first portion of the chapter deals with our six Mohawk Valley counties. There were but five such counties in 1810, as Fulton County was then part of Montgomery County and continued as such until 1836. In 1810, the Mohawk Valley counties were — Schenectady, Schoharie, Montgomery, Herkimer and Oneida. The Mohawk River counties numbered four, as at present — Schenectady, Montgomery, Herkimer and Oneida. Montgomery County then ran west to present Little Falls. In 1810 Montgomery County embraced present Fulton and Hamilton counties. Oneida County then included Oswego County.

Municipal Profiles: Watervliet | Halfmoon | Waterford | Niskayuna | Schenectady | Amsterdam | Florida | Johnstown | Charleston | Canajoharie | Palatine | Minden | Oppenheim | Manheim | Herkimer | German Flats | Frankfort | Schuyler | Whitestown | Utica | Deerfield | New Hartford | Paris | Rome | Camden

The second part of the 1810 description covers the towns and townships along the Mohawk River from its outlet into the Hudson at Waterford, westward to Rome. Some adjacent townships have been added, such as New Hartford, Paris and Camden. Many of these 1810 townships were much larger than at present and embraced townships which have since been formed. For instance, Danube Township, now in Herkimer County, was then embraced in the township of Minden, Montgomery County; Charleston embraced Glen, etc. The present Township of St. Johnsville, Montgomery County, was then part of Oppenheim Township, now in Fulton County. Johnstown Township ran to the Mohawk River and included present Mohawk Township of Montgomery County. Herkimer Township then included Little Falls Township.

In 1810, the Mohawk River Townships were Halfmoon (Saratoga County); Watervliet (Albany County); Niskayuna, Schenectady (Schenectady County); Amsterdam, Florida, Johnstown, Charleston, Canajoharie, Palatine, Minden, Oppenheim, Manheim (all then in Montgomery County); Herkimer, German Flats, Frankfort, Schuyler (Herkimer County); Whitestown, Deerfield, Rome (Oneida County). To these have been added Paris (then embracing Kirkland, inasmuch as the latter is part of the Utica 1925 metropolitan district) and Camden, as it now includes the Village of Camden. Paris and Camden were and are parts of Oneida County.

The Mohawk River towns described in Spafford's Gazetteer are also here reprinted. They are Waterford, Cohoes, Schenectady, Johnstown, Herkimer, Utica, New Hartford, Whitestown, and Rome. There were other small villages then which are not separately described, such as Amsterdam, Caughnawaga (Fonda), Canajoharie, Fort Plain, St. Johnsville, Mohawk and Clinton.

There are some historical errors in Spafford's Gazetteer, but it is mainly correct in its details. Such errors are here omitted, where possible.

In 1800, the population of the Mohawk Valley was 78,811 (with Schenectady estimated, as it was then part of Albany County). In 1810 the total Valley population of Schenectady, Montgomery, Schoharie, Herkimer and Oneida was 128,986, which showed a growth of over fifty per cent. in the population in the decade from 1800 to 1810.

This description of the Mohawk Valley was written by an intelligent observer of unusually keen perception. It is interesting to contrast his view of our Mohawk River country with that of another keen observer, the French Spy of 1757, who wrote of the valley in the midst of the French and Indian War, fifty years prior to the account published in Spafford's Gazetteer. The latter description is so vividly made and in such convincing detail that it reads as though it was recording present-day conditions. A reading of it gives one the temporary impression of a present time and the reader almost expects to look out of his window and see a Mohawk Valley of 1810, after following Spafford from the mouth of the Mohawk to Rome, in the early days of the Nineteenth Century. Such is the effect of the arrangement of the material as it is presented here. In Spafford's Gazetteer, the towns and counties are given in alphabetical order and the material does not present the same mental picture as that obtained from the selection of the counties, towns and townships of the Mohawk River country, which is printed in this chapter.

The Mohawk Valley of 1810 was essentially the Valley of today. True, there were then no railroads and the manufactures and cities and towns were small by comparison with those of today. However, in 1810, the Valley towns and industries seemed large and important to the observer of that time, as the enthusiastic accounts of both subjects in Spafford's Gazetteer plainly show. While there was then no Erie Canal, the progenitor of the present State Barge Canal existed in the canals, dams and locks which made the Mohawk River navigable in a small way. Spafford's observer seems to have not appreciated the part played by the Mohawk River, in early commerce and transportation, because the Mohawk's water traffic was evidently then in decline. However our river had played a great part in the history of American inland navigation.

In 1810 the agricultural industry of the Valley was of equal or greater importance with that of 1925. There was then a larger population engaged in farming in the Mohawk Valley than there was in 1920, 110 years later.

In 1810 there were two Mohawk Valley towns which were cities of that day — Schenectady and Utica. Schenectady had 500 houses and Utica 300. Schenectady's growth seems to have been very slow in the thirty years following the Revolution, while that of Utica had been very rapid. However, Schenectady was then the largest town in New York State west of Albany. In 1810, the lower Mohawk Valley had been settled for 150 years. Schenectady was then considered ancient among American towns of that day. It had long before shaken off its frontier characteristics and was a conservative center of commerce, and civilization. For a quarter-century it had been the seat of Union Academy and Union College. It still retained much of its old Holland Dutch character and the language of brave little Holland was still spoken by its burghers and their good vrouws.

Utica, on the other hand, was a lively, bustling, manufacturing city, with much of the progressive character which it has at the present time.

Waterford, at the junction of the Mohawk and the Hudson rivers, had 190 houses in 1810, and can be justly considered a city of the time.

The second class of Valley towns, described by Spafford, together with the number of houses, is as follows: Johnstown, 120; Herkimer, 95; Whitesboro, 100; Rome, 95; Trenton Village, 70. These were regarded as good sized towns and trading centers in 1810. Johnstown, Herkimer, Whitesboro and Rome were county seats, the two latter being "half shire-towns" of Oneida County.

The third-class towns or villages of 1810, With their individual number of houses, follow: Amsterdam, 35; Caughnawaga (Fonda), 30; Canajoharie, 20; Palatine Church; Little Falls, 50; Fort Herkimer; Deerfield Corners, 20; Clinton, 55; Paris Hill, 35; Vernon, 35; Waterville, 40; Boonville; Camden; Spafford's gives "Palatine Village", meaning Palatine Church, 40 houses; 20 would be nearer the truth. No number of houses is given Fort Plain, but it had about 20 in the Sand Hill section and 5 or 10 at its present center, in 1810. A few of these towns have no more houses or people today than they held in 1810.

The hamlets of 1810, in the Mohawk Valley, were as follows: Cohoes, Tribes Hill, Fultonville, Kingsborough (Gloversville), Broadalbin, Ephratah, St. Johnsville, Green's Bridge (Dolgeville), Mohawk, London (Ilion), Frankfort and Oriskany were hamlets of from 5 to 15 houses. From the foregoing it can be seen that all the towns of the Mohawk Valley were in existence in 1810, at least in a very small way. As previously mentioned, Oneida County embraced Oswego County in 1810. Oswego Falls (present city of Oswego) then had 15 houses. Fall Hill was also a hamlet, probably as large as it is today.

All the villages of Schoharie County, in 1810, were small, as it was a strictly agricultural section. Schoharie Court House had 25 houses, and Middleburgh, Cobleskill and Carlisle were hamlets. Central Bridge had 20 houses.

Spafford's topographical and geographical description of the Mohawk Valley in 1810 is unusually clear and interesting and, in part, much of it would pass for the Valley as it is today. The importance of the Mohawk Turnpike is plainly shown. In 1810 it bound together the towns along the Mohawk, exactly as it does today — "like beads on a chain".

In the following account, the references, given in Spafford, are eliminated, as they are confusing and not necessary to this Mohawk Valley description. The abbreviations used by Spafford are mostly self-evident in their meaning. The main ones in use are as follows: "S. Elec." senatorial electors; "fr" from; "h" houses; "s", stores; "A" or "Alb", Albany; "p. o.", post office; "l" lake; "ch" courthouse; "tax Inhab." taxable inhabitants; "v", village, etc. The points of the compass, "n", north; "e", east, etc., are self-evident.

Spafford's descriptions follow without quotations:

Schenectady County

Schenectady County is but of recent date, though the settlement is very ancient. It was erected from Albany County in 1809, and is but a small county in extent though it contains the city of Schenectady. Bounded northerly by Montgomery and Saratoga Counties, easterly by Saratoga and Albany Counties, southerly by Albany, and westwardly by Schoharie County. The form is very irregular, and the area may be about 180 square miles, or 115,200 acres. Situated between 42° 43' and 42° 48' N. Latitude; 09' E. and 20' W. Longitude from New York.

Topographical and Statistical Table, Census, Etc., of 1810.
TownsP. O.Pop.S. Elec.Remarks
Duanesburgh13,05225323 m. N. of W. fr. Albany; L. Maria, Prospect-Hill
Niskayuna 42457On the S. side Mohawk, 12 m. N. W. of Albany
Princetown 8269822 m. from Alb., 7 W. of Schenectady
Schenectady15,903622Schenectady City; compact part, 500 h. & s., Union College, 4 churches, 14 1/2 m. fr. A.
 210,2051,030 

The County of Schenectady has the Mohawk running across its northern part, and the other small streams are too inconsiderable for notice here, except Aalplaats Creek, noticed under Saratoga County. The historic notices will be referred to Schenectady City; and there is little to invite summary detail. The soil, except the alluvial flats, and the more elevated and broken lands of Duanesburgh, and some part of Princetown, is similar to the upland, sandy plains of Albany County. Duanesburgh is more loamy, and the tracts of alluvion are extensive and very rich along the Mohawk near Schenectady. Of the agriculture, no general character can be given. * * * The great turnpike to the Mohawk and the western country leads from Albany to Schenectady, 14 1/2 miles distant. And here is the portage between the Mohawk and Hudson Rivers, occasioned by the rapids and falls of the former below Schenectady. An elegant covered bridge across the Mohawk at this place deserves eminent notice. It is 997 feet in length, and is one of the best efforts in this line, according to the expense and the materials employed, of the celebrated bridge architect, T. Burr.

Schenectady, the capital of this county, and from which it takes its name, is charmingly situated on the Mohawk flats on the margin of that river, and contains about 500 houses and stores, the county buildings, Union College, four churches, or houses for public worship, and a bank. It is 14 1/2 miles northwest of Albany, and 15 southwest of Ballston Springs. The inhabitants are principally Dutch or their descendants, variously intermixed with emigrants from Europe and the United States. Schenectady County sends two members to the House of Assembly.

[Editorial note: see also the Schenectady County section from the 1824 edition.]

Schoharie County

Schoharie County was erected from Albany and Otsego Counties, in 1795. It is situated about thirty-four miles west of Albany, and is bounded north by Montgomery County, east by a small angle of Schenectady, and by Albany County, southerly by Greene and Delaware counties, west by Otsego County. The area may be about 565 square miles, or 361,600 acres. Situated between 42° 18' and 42° 10' N. Latitude; 10' W. and 43' W. Longitude from New York.

Topographical and Statistical Table, Census, Etc., of 1810.
TownsP. O.Pop.S. Elec.Remarks
Blenheim11,319132147 miles S. of W. from Albany
Broome11,942147Formerly Bristol, 38 miles from Albany
Carlisle11,23183Erected in 1807; 40 miles from Albany
Cobleskill 2,49425735 miles from Albany
Jefferson 1,74021248 miles S. of W. from Albany
Middleburgh 3,23631335 miles from Albany. Schoharie Flats
Schoharie13,232266Schoharie V., 25 h., C. H. 32 m. fr. A.; S. Bridge V., 20 h. p. o.
Sharon13,751324145 m. fr. A. — N. W. cor. of county
 618,9451,704 

The County of Schoharie is situated thirty-four miles west of Albany, embracing a tract of elevated and broken land, formed by the Catsbergs, or Catskill hills, and the Helderbergs. It has no larger stream than the Schoharie Creek, which, rising in Greene County, runs centrally through Schoharie northward, seeking the Mohawk, which it enters in Montgomery County. Cobus, or Cobleskill, is a principal branch of the Schoharie Creek, and Catskill rises among the mountains in the southeastern part of this county. The rocks of Schoharie County are principally calcareous, and the hills abound with precipices and natural caverns, common features of limestone countries. And the alluvion is of a peculiarly rich and fertile character, another common feature, being formed of vegetable mold, variously intermixed with calcareous loam; a soil of superior excellence wherever found, warm, durable, and adapted to a great variety of products. The alluvial flats are very extensive along this creek; and they have been settled more than 100 years, since first occupied by German and Dutch emigrants. These flats extend about twenty-six miles, following the windings of the stream, and are in many places a mile wide. The calcareous stones abound with those impressions imputed to petrification of the shells of testaceous animals; and which, in spite of popular prejudice, belong to a different order of stones. This county is pretty well watered with springs and small rivulets; and the agriculture, though not in the best style of improvement, is proverbially productive. The three southern towns, Broome, Blenheim and Jefferson, are principally settled by people from the eastern states.

The ancient inhabitants of this county suffered much from Indian hostility; and during the Revolutionary war, Schoharie was overrun and laid waste by the British and Indians under the command of Brandt, and of Johnson, the greater savage of the two. Much of the clothing worn in this county is made in the family way; and many of the inhabitants are very rich. Schoharie, the capital of the county, is finely situated on the Schoharie flats, where is a small village of twenty-five houses, the county buildings and two churches. The courthouse is of stone, three stories high; and the houses have rather the appearance of a rich farming settlement, than of a motley collection of taverns, shops and offices. Schoharie County sends two members to the House of Assembly.

Montgomery County

Montgomery County was named in honor of General Montgomery, in 1784, having before been called Tryon County. It was one of the fourteen counties organized by the General Organization Act of 1788; and was then, and still is, the largest county in the state. It is bounded north by St. Lawrence and Franklin Counties; east by Essex, Washington, Saratoga, and a small angle of Schenectady County; southerly by Schenectady, Schoharie and Otsego Counties; west by Herkimer County. Its greatest length, north and south, is eighty-nine miles; greatest width, thirty-eight miles. The whole area is 2,762 square miles, or 1,767,680 acres. Situated between 42° 47' and 44° 07' N. Latitude; 04' W. and 54' W. Longitude from New York.

Topographical and Statistical Table, Census, Etc., of 1810.
TownsP. O.Pop.S. Elec.Remarks
Amsterdam13,039400Amsterd. V., 35 h. & s. 27 m. fr. A.; Veddersburgh
Broadalbin12,238307Broadalbin V., 38 m. from Albany; Fonda's Bush
Canajoharie14,010613 V., 20 h., 50 m. fr. A.; Bowman's Creek
Charleston15,282660Old M. Castle, 10 m. fr. Johnstown, 38 fr. Albany
Florida12,777290Old Mohawk Castle, Johnson-Hall, 35 m. fr. Albany
Johnstown16,225817Johnstown V., inc., 121 h., 42 m. fr. A.; Cahnawaga P. O., 30 h.
Manheim11,444221160 m. from Albany, 25 W. from J.
Mayfield 2,06538040 m. N. W. from Albany, 8 N. E. from Johnstown
Minden14,788653Old Indian Castle, Fort Plain, Fall Hill, 62 m. fr. A.
Northampton11,47424250 m. N. E. from Albany; Great Fly & Mount Joy
Oppenheim 2,693424Oppenheim V., 55 m. fr. A.; 14 N. W. fr. Johnstown
Palatine13,111547Palatine V., 40 h., 55 m. fr. A.; Stone Arabia 52 m.
Salisbury 1,25220075 m. fr. Albany, 30 N. W. from Johnstown
Stratford 35320668 m. from Albany, 27 N. W. from Johnstown
Wells 465320Pezeeke Lake, and sources of the Hudson
 1041,9066,180 

The County of Montgomery, like Herkimer, has the Mohawk running eastward across the whole county, near its southern extremity; and like that county, has much the same character of surface, soil and climate, as referred to the different portions of the whole territory. Its waters are very numerous. The Mohawk receives, within this county, from the south, the Nowadaga, Otsquaga, Canajoharie and some other small creeks, besides the Schoharie Creek, or river, which rises in Greene County. From the north, East Canada, Garoga, and Chuctenunda Creeks, besides many smaller streams. The Sacandaga, a large branch of the Hudson, has its source in this county [then including present Hamilton County], and its course for many miles. And the north, or main branch of the Hudson, spreads over the northern part, which also furnishes the extreme sources of the Racket River, of the St. Lawrence. This part of Montgomery is clothed with evergreens, of an enormous size, and abounds with swamps, small lakes and marshes, little known. The settlements can hardly be said to extend beyond twenty-five miles north of the Mohawk. Along that river, the broken lands are productive, and the alluvial tracts are extensive and rich. The southern half, therefore, of the whole area has almost all the population, and this part may be called a good tract of land; while the northern is of very little value. The taxable property of this county, agreeable to the supervisor's books for 1810, amounts to $5,233,766; and the senatorial electors are 3,684. In 1788, when first erected, Montgomery included all that part of the state lying north and west of Ulster, Albany, Washington and Clinton counties — an immense area, now so numerously subdivided, and so populous. In 1786 the whole population of this county was 15,057; in 1790, that of the same area 29,923; in 1800, 162,690; and in 1810, more than 280,000.

The navigation of the Mohawk, and the goodness of the roads communicating with the Hudson, afford important facilities of trade and intercourse. No other stimulus for industry and enterprise has equal efficacy with that of direct profits, by which the laborer is enriched. Abundantly furnished with good sites for water works, these conveniences have been well improved, and there is a good supply of common mechanics. Wheat has long been a staple product of the Mohawk country in general, and this county yields a vast amount. It is much to be regretted that the exuberant fertility of the wheat lands of this country should be subject to such husbandry as greatly to lessen the value of this product; smut and foul grain, which have so much injured the quality and reputation of the wheat of the Mohawk country, are certainly excluded from the crops of the good husbandman. By greater care in tillage and in harvesting, both may be excluded. No wheat should ever be housed or mowed while there remains sufficient greenness in the straw to occasion fermentation; nor cut, unless I much mistake, while any of the joints remain green. At any rate, the subject is of sufficient importance to induce experiments in the hope of a remedy; and I can but earnestly recommend to farmers a fair trial of these suggestions, particularly as relates to smut. Let the experiment be fairly tried, by reserving a few rods in the midst of a field of smutty wheat, till fully ripe — till the straw be dry and the chaff begins to open; then gather, preserve the grain separately, and use this for the seed of the next crop. If smut be a disease of this invaluable and abundant product of our lands, how carefully should the good husbandman labor to find a remedy! And had I not great confidence in this mode, I should not take the liberty to propose it here. The brining of seed is generally known to be serviceable, though not much used in this country.

It ought not to be forgotten that this county was the principal residence of the Mohawk Indians and the chosen and favorite region of the Johnson family, long and eminently conspicuous as the peculiar favorites of those Indians, and as the agents of Great Britain. Nor ought we to forget the ground consecrated to history, by the events of wars and the despicable intriques and rapacities which these produced, nor the series of reflections perpetuated by all such records of memorial. Montgomery County sends five members to the House of Assembly.

Herkimer County

Herkimer County was erected from Montgomery County, in 1791, and was then very extensive; but by successive subdivisions from which were erected other counties, it is now restricted to a much smaller area. Its present form is an irregular oblong, embracing the Mohawk, which crosses the southern part. The geographical center lies about eighty-five miles on a right line northwest from Albany. It is bounded north by St. Lawrence County, east by Montgomery County and a small angle of Otsego County, south by Otsego County, west by Oneida and Lewis Counties; greatest length, north and south, eighty-five miles; greatest width, sixteen miles. The area is 1,106 square miles, or 707,840 acres. Situated between 42° 49' and 44° 07' North Latitude; 44' W. and 1° 15' from New York.

Topographical and Statistical Table, Census, Etc., of 1810.
TownsP. O.No. of FamiliesPop. 1810S. Elec.Remarks
Fairfield14122,705284Fairfield Acad., 76 m. fr. Alb., 10 N. E. fr. Herkimer.
Frankfort 2201,304112S. side Mohawk, 9 m. fr. Her., 87 from Albany
German Flats13712,228207S. s. M., German Flats, V., Canal, etc., 75 m. fr. Albany
Herkimer14152,743282Herkimer V., inc., 95 h. & s., 78 m. fr. A.; Little Falls P. O.
Litchfield14142,533319S. side Moh., 10 m. from Herk., 88 from Albany
Newport12701,60586Bowen's Settlement, 95 m. N. Westerly fr. Albany
Norway12351,46614220 m. N. from Herkimer, 90 N. Westerly fr. Albany
Russia12381,38126 m. V. from Herkimer, 90 N. Westerly fr. Albany
Schuyler 3242,10712410 m. N. W. from Herkimer, 88 from Albany
Warren16643,974444S. s. of Mo., 70 m. from Albany, 9 m. S. fr. Herkimer
 83,56322,0462,112 

The County of Herkimer has a large proportion of hilly land, and as great a diversity of soil as any county in the state. The hills that border the Mohawk aspire with considerable assurance to the name of mountains. The southern part furnishes some small sources of the Susquehanna, a circumstance that indicates a lofty altitude; and the tract of country, called the Royal Grants, which lies north of the Mohawk, is elevated, broken by high hills, and has a mountain temperature. The northern part is less elevated and more level; but extensive swamps and marshes, with the vast forests of evergreens, pine, spruce, hemlock and fir, characterize its mountain temperature, and the cold, sterile soil. But, when I penetrated the northern wilds of this country, while collecting the materials for this work, I may have judged too hastily, and perhaps unfavorably, though of the mountain character, and its influence on the climate, I can not be mistaken. In a country wholly wild, however zealously bent on precise examination, the traveller, in time, ceases to examine mole-hills, till he has found a breakfast. And in practice, there is a wide difference between the philosophy of knowledge, while snugly seated in a stage-coach, or perambulating vast forests, remote from the habitations of man. Herkimer County furnishes some small streams of the Oswegatchie, several considerable branches of Black River, and the main source also of that river. West Canada Creek rises in this county and in Montgomery, runs at first west, then curves about to the southeast, after forming part of the western boundary, and holds a southerly course to the Mohawk, near the village or borough of Herkimer, the capital of the county. The Mohawk crosses the southern part of this county, and some small waters of the Susquehanna rise near the southern extremity. No district of equal size contains a greater diversity of soil. Much of the hilly ground affords a good soil, some of sandy, argillaceous, and loamy-free from stone in some parts, in others so stony as almost to exclude soil. The alluvial flats are extensive and very rich along the Mohawk; and there is considerable of alluvion along the creeks. The rocks are calcareous granite, some few blocks of the European kind, limestone, slatestone, and fragil shistusm — the common flint, masses of calcareous sandstone or free stone, and so intermixed and disposed as to mock all the closet speculations of general theory. The agriculture of all the southern part is productive, and affords a great amount of surplus products. The taxable property, as estimated on the supervisor's books in 1810, amounts to $1,904,123. In addition to the view of its manufactures in the general table, page 50, there are thirty-three grain, and fifty-four saw mills, a steel yard manufactory and a cotton manufactory. The whole value of household manufactures, in woolen, linen, and cotton or mixed cloths for common clothing, exceeds $200,000. There are 44,450 sheep in the county, 1,500 of which are of mixed blood with the Merino. In 1800 the population was 14,503; the gain, therefore, in ten years is 7,543. Herkimer County sends three members to the House of Assembly.

Oneida County

Oneida County was erected from Herkimer County in 1798, and was then very extensive; but the northern part of Oneida was erected into two other counties, Jefferson and Lewis, in 1805. Its present form is very irregular: Bounded northerly by Jefferson and Lewis counties, east by Herkimer County, southerly by Madison and Onondaga counties, through the channel of Oneida Creek and Lake, and Oswego River; westwardly on Lake Ontario, or by the British possessions in Canada [Oneida including Oswego County in 1810]. The area may be about 2,036 square miles, or 1,303,040 acres. Situated between 42° 52' and 44° 25' N. Latitude; 1° 5' W. and 2° 30' W. Longitude from New York.

Topographical and Statistical Table, Census, Etc., of 1810.
TownsP. O.Pop.S. Elec.Remarks
Augusta 2,004350About half of the N. Stockb. land, 17 m. S. W. fr. Utica
Bengal 4547127 m. N. W. fr. Utica, at the N. E. extremity of Oneida Lake
Boonville139367Boonville, or B. Settlem., 25 m. N. fr. U, on Blk. R. road
Bridgewater11,17015112 m. S. fr. Utica. The southern extrem. of the county
Camden11,132178On the N. of Bengal & Oneida L., 30 m. N. W. fr. Utica
Constantia 15326Rotterdam & the remains of Fort Brewerton, N. E. end of O. L.
Deerfield  1,232117Deerfield, N. of Mohawk, opposite Utica
Florence 3966232 m. N. W. from Utica, N. of Camden and Bengal
Floyd 97012710 m. N. from Utica, 6 E. from Rome. Iron ore
Lee **Erected April, 1811, fr. Western, 25 m. N. W. fr. Utica
Mexico  845123Mexico, on L. Ontario & Salmon C. Harbor. 65 m. fr. U.
Paris15,418652Clinton V., 55 h. & s. p. o. & Acady.; Paris Hill, 35 h. & s. Hanover V.
Redfield13625745 m. N. W. fr. Utica; 36 E. fr. Oswego
Remsen14893326 m. N. from Utica; 55 m. N. W. from Johnstown
Richland 94715255 m. N. W. from Utica, at the end of L. Ontario
Rome12,003182Rome V., 95 h. Canal, 16 m. N. W. fr. U.; 60 fr. Oswego
Sangerfield11,324177Sangerfield V., 50 houses; 15 m. S. from Utica
Scriba132811Oswego Fort, p. o.; 178 miles from Albany
Steuben 1,105140Baron Steuben's Patent, 110 m. fr. Alb., 20 m. fr. Utica
Trenton11,548127Trenton V., 70 h., Falls, 13 m. N. fr. Utica, 107 m. fr. A.
Vernon11,519190Vernon V., 35 h. & glass manufactories. Oneida Castle
Verona 1,014151Fort Royal & Wood Creek Landing, 127 m. fr. Albany
Volney **Oswego Falls, 15 dwellings, 165 m. from Albany
Western 2,41627520 miles N. from Utica, 8 from Rome
Westmoreland11,135141Hampton p. o.; Dean's Tract, 11 m. W. from U.
Whitestown24,912533Whitesboro, 100 h.; Utica, 300 h., p. o., 97 f. A.; N. Hart. p. o.
Williamstown 5628240 m. N. W. of Utica; 33 E. of Oswego; 10 N. of Rotterdam
 1733,7924,175 

The County of Oneida is very extensive, has a large aggregate population, and a great amount of property. Independent of its central position, as regards the whole territory of the state, the geographical position is commanding and very important. Its villages, already of much trade, have the great avenue of intercourse between Albany and the western parts of the state leading directly through them. Here is the western navigable extremity of the Mohawk, and the short canal connecting that river [through Wood Creek] with the waters of Lake Ontario; and in consequence the natural depot of the products and trade of a vast extent of surrounding territory, opulent of agriculture, with a soil of great fertility. Unless I misjudge very grossly, this country will long cherish manufactures, and is destined to become, at some future period, the greatest seat of manufacturing in this state. The face of the country is very level, and the only tract that borders on a hilly character is a small portion of the eastern part; while on the north and westward from the Oneida Lake it is almost a dead level. The small streams are very numerous. Here are the sources of the Mohawk, spread over the eastern part. The Susequehanna receives some small waters from two of the southern towns, through the Unadilla and Chenango branches of that river; and Black River crosses the northeast corner, while West Canada Creek forms a small part of its eastern boundary. Oneida Creek runs into the head of Oneida Lake, forming the boundary toward Madison County; and Wood Creek, which rises near the Mohawk, extends the communication with the Mohawk and Oneida Lake, into which it also empties, at the east end, and receives Fish Creek near its mouth, larger than itself. The Oneida Lake is half in this county, as is also the Oswego River, its outlet, which enters Lake Ontario at Fort Oswego. The Oriskany and the Sadahqueda creeks water the southern part, and run north into the Mohawk in Whitestown. The Skanando rises in Augusta, and runs into Oneida Creek. From. the north the Mohawk receives Nine-Mile, and some other small creeks, as do the Oneida Lake and Oswego River. Little Sandy Creek, and Salmon Creek, and Little Salmon Creek, with many others, run into Lake Ontario.

The taxable property of this county, agreeable to the valuations on the supervisor's books, exceeds $4,000,000, a valuation far below the current value of property. In agriculture, Oneida County takes a high rank; as it does also in the extent and variety of its manufactures. The mills and water works are very numerous. But the far greater part of the population is confined to the eastern half of the county, the western being comparatively wild. Nor must we in this summary view, fail to notice particularly the compact settlements or villages of this county. Utica, on the south bank of the Mohawk, ninety-seven miles north of west from Albany, has an immense and rapidly increasing trade, as have Whitesborough and New Hartford, all in Whitestown; and Rome, finely seated on the canal, sixteen miles northwest from Utica, has also a brisk trade. The courts for the county are held alternately at Whitesborough and Rome. Trenton, Vernon, Clinton, Sangerfield, and several others, are very flourishing villages, the seats of much taste and elegance. In aid of the exertions of manufacturers, monied men have taken a deep interest in the stock of manufacturing companies, and every means has been used to improve the breeds of domestic stock. The Merino has been, introduced in considerable numbers, and a most zealous spirit of improvement pervades all classes of the community. The falls of West Canada Creek, in Trenton, are a rare curiosity, and deserve early notice as such. Oneida County sends five members to the House of Assembly.

Watervliet [now, 1925, the township of Colonie], a large township in the northeast corner of Albany County, six miles north of Albany; bounded north by the Mohawk River, or the County of Saratoga, east by the Hudson, south by Colonie, and the City of Albany. It extends ten miles along the Mohawk and the lower sprout of that river, and six and a half along the Hudson, and has an area of about fifty-two square miles, exclusive of several islands in the Hudson. Much of the land is poor and barren, and the population is very unequally distributed. Along the Hudson are some fine flats, and in many places the river hills are of a moderate steepness, and present good farming lands. The interior has much of sandy ridges and some marshes and wet land, wooded with pine and a variety of dwarf shrubbery of little value. In the southeast is Mill Creek, which enters the Hudson on the north line of Colonie, and supplies some mills, with Caldwell's factory also. The mansion house of Maj. Gen. Stephen Van Rensselaer is in the southeast corner, just on the north bank of this creek, and on a handsome flat extending to the Hudson. The road to Troy and the north country lies along the valley of the Hudson, on which there are two small villages in this town: Washington, five miles north of Albany, and Gibbons Ville, opposite Troy, six miles. About three miles north of Gibbons Ville there is a bridge across the Mohawk, a short distance below the Cahoos Falls. The roads are numerous in the interior, but they are rather paths than highways. A turnpike has lately been opened from Gibbons Ville to Schenectady, which extends west through this town, and promises to be of considerable importance. The Cahoos, being the principal falls of the Mohawk, are between Watervliet and Halfmoon, in Saratoga County. The whole waters of the Mohawk descend in one sheet, at high water, about seventy feet; and present a view as grand and majestic as it is wild and picturesque, when connected with the surrounding scenery. The islands formed by the spreading branches below the falls are also attached to this town. The Mohawk enters the Hudson in four branches, or sprouts, as they are commonly called, the upper at Waterford, and the lower one opposite Troy, three and a quarter miles in a right line below Haver Island, is about a half mile broad, and a little more than that in length east and west lying between the fourth and third branches immediately below Waterford. Van Schaick's Island, next below, is between the third and second branches, opposite Lansingburgh, and extends one and three-quarters miles in length, being about a half mile broad. This is also called Cahoos Island. The American army was stationed on this island, immediately before it advanced under General Gates, in 1777, to meet Burgoyne. And Haver Island had a number of breastworks thrown up at that time, which are still to be seen. It was intended to attempt a stand here as a last resort against the British army. These two islands are owned by a branch of the ancient family of Van Schaick. Green Island lies between the second and first branches, opposite Troy, and is near two miles long and half mile wide. In the vicinity of the Cahoos is a Dutch church and farming neighborhood, commonly called the Boght. Gibbons Ville is pleasantly situated on a handsome flat and contains about fifteen houses. Here is also a bell foundry, with a considerable variety of works in brass, plating, etc. Several small brass cannon have been lately made here, on a contract with the State of Connecticut. Surveyors' compasses, of superior construction and workmanship, are made here, and I have seen some samples of plated ware, done in a very superior style. There are in this town 1,092 white males, 1,070 white females, 128 slaves, and seventy-five other persons; in all, 2,365; and there are 215 senatorial electors. There are five grain mills, and four saw mills. The lands are principally held by lease from the proprietor of the Manor of Rensselaer. Considerable efforts have been made to discover coal, where supposed indications of that mineral are found on the flats back of the village of Washington. But unfortunately these efforts are not yet attended with better success than those at Greenbush. The settlement of the people called Shakers is in the northwest part of this town, at Niskayuna, eight miles northwest of Albany. They have a house of worship, and the village contains about 150 houses.

Since the above was written, a manufactory of screws of iron, for woodwork, erected on the lower sprout of the Mohawk, near the Cahoos bridge, has got into successful operation. Works are about to be added for drawing the wire from which the screws are formed, when the iron will be taken into the bar, and manufactured into screws, now made of foreign wire. The machinery is all driven by water, and said to be very ingenious, the invention of a self-taught artist, Mr. Wm. C. Penniman. Some samples of the screws which I have seen appear to be well formed, and they are cut with great dispatch. These works are owned by an incorpor. ated company, with a sufficient capital, and are situated directly opposite Lansingburgh, and about two miles below Waterford.

Halfmoon, a large township in the southern extremity of Saratoga County, including the post village of Waterford, twelve miles southeast of Ballston, and fifteen north of Albany; bounded north by Ballston, Malta and Stillwater, east by the Hudson or the County of Rensselaer, south by the Mohawk or the County of Albany, west by the County of Schenectady. Greatest extent east and west, eleven miles; greatest north and south, eight and one-half; it extends eight miles along the Hudson, and about twelve along the Mohawk. Dwarfkill, a small stream that runs north to Round Lake on the north line, has some mill-seats, as there are also on Anthon's kill, which forms part of the northern boundary; and there is a small stream that enters the Mohawk near Harmony Church which has some mill-seats. The Cahoos falls of the Mohawk, near its mouth, are between this town and Watervliet, and will supply a vast profusion of sites when the surrounding population shall need extensive water works. There are now mills erected on the upper sprout or delta of that river, just at Waterford Point where it meets the Hudson. The surface is considerably diversified, and the center is occupied by a high plain with some summits of a moderate height; while in the east and south are the valleys of the Hudson and Mohawk, where the rivers have deepened their courses till the terminating plain presents some considerable hills. Along the Hudson are fine flats which only terminate at Waterford Point, the angle formed by the commingled waters of the two rivers; and these flats have good soil. Along the Mohawk is a sterile rugged tract for several miles where are some flats of sand of argillaceous mold. The soil of the interior is principally a light and yellowish sandy loam, the timber pine, etc.; along the rivers, oak predominates, with walnut and a variety of hard woods. The roads are too numerous to be good, and the main post road from Albany to the north country crosses the Mohawk at the Cahoos bridge, and leads through Waterford and along the Hudson through a small village in the north called the Borough, eight miles from Waterford. There is a bridge also across the Hudson at Waterford, both toll bridges. About four miles northwest of Waterford, on the road to Ballston-Spa, is a small village called Middletown, and north of this is a farming neighborhood, called Newtown, where is a Quaker meeting house, ten miles from Waterford. Waterford is an incorporated post village, pleasantly situated on the north side of the Mohawk, on a point of land formed by that and the Hudson, ten miles north of Albany. Sloops ascend to this place, but with great difficulty, and it unfortunately stands rather above than at the head of navigation. Great exertions are making to render the river navigable to this place, and in time it may be effected. The trade is now very considerable; and here are about 190 houses and stores, two churches, or houses of worship, and some other buildings. About six miles west of Waterford, in a bend of the Mohawk, is a tract known by the name of Clifton Park, in which is a Dutch Reformed church called Amity, with a Baptist meeting house also, in a farming district. The whole population of Halfmoon in 1810 was 5,292, with 592 electors.

Waterford, a populous and compact incorporated post village in the southeast corner of Halfmoon, Saratoga County, on the west bank of the Hudson, ten miles north of Albany, -and four north of Troy. It is handsomely seated on a fine level surface, and on the point of land formed by the junction of the upper sprout or delta of the Mohawk with the Hudson, and is the most populous town in the county, and has by far the most trade. Here is a toll bridge across the Hudson, to the upper part of Lansingburgh, on the opposite shore; and near here is also a toll bridge across the Mohawk, below, and in full view of the Cahoos, the great falls of that river. This is on the main north road from Albany, which leads through Waterford. In a few instances a moderate degree of the swell occasioned by the tides in the Hudson has been perceived at Waterford, which was formerly called Halfmoon-Point. The Hudson, however, can hardly be called navigable to this place at present, and its trade is principally carried on in flat-bottomed boats, scow-built and rigged with sails. Great efforts are making to improve the navigation, which may probably be effected in time, as the object shall increase in magnitude, with the increase of population. The village is handsomely laid out, on five east and west streets, intersected by others at right angles. There are now 190 houses and stores, a large proportion of which are of brick, two houses of worship, and some other buildings. There are three schools, one on the Lancaster plan, and in one the languages are taught, with the higher branches of polite and classical literature. A large and elegant new building is about to be erected by the trustees of the village, for the accommodation of these schools. Just at the point, a rolling dam is thrown across the Mohawk, which supplies some mills; and Waterford is well situated for a manufacturing town. Since the above was written, I learn that a wharf of 320 yards in length was constructed in 1812, at great expense and labor, together with a canal channel, extending along it to the channel of the Hudson. The wharf leads from the point into the Hudson on an angle of about 45 degrees, inclining downwards. This will probably prove of some considerable advantage, but the only way to remove these difficulties at once is by turning the course of the lower sprouts of the Mohawk.

Niskayuna, a small township in the northeast angle of Schenectady County, twelve miles northwest of Albany; bounded north by the Mohawk or the County of Saratoga, south by Albany County, west by Schenectady. It is a small town that offers very little for local detail, and was erected in 1809, with the County of Schenectady. The land is pretty good along the river, but there is much of it that is of an indifferent quality. The whole population of this town in 1810 was 424, when there were fifty-seven senatorial electors. For the Shaker settlement of Niskayuna, see Watervliet. Alexander's mills, on the Mohawk, are situated at the bridge, on the Ballston turnpike. Here is a low rolling dam quite across the river, a place of some business in water works, and a romantic prospect of the Mohawk and surrounding country.

Schenectady, a city and also a post township, the capital of Schenectady County, the center of which is twenty miles northwest of Albany; bounded north by Saratoga County, east by Saratoga County and the Township of Niskayuna, south by Albany County, west by Princetown and the southeast angle of Montgomery County. Its extent is about equal to ten miles square and the Mohawk runs centrally through it on a devious course eastward. For the convenience of municipal regulations, it is divided into four wards, the first and second of which comprise the compact and ancient town of Schenectady. The land is of various qualities, from the poorest of sandy loam to the best of alluvial flats, which are very extensive along the river. And much of the plains and uplands are but poor, though there are many tracts which only appear so now for the want of good husbandry. The roads are very numerous, and the great Mohawk turnpike from Albany crosses the river at the city, where is an elegant wooden bridge of 997 feet in length. The whole population of this township in 1810 was 5,909, when there was 622 electors. The population of the First Ward, 1,406; Second, 1,444; Third, 1,005; Fourth, 2,504 [2,850 in Schenectady City]. The corporation, as in Albany, holds a large circumstance of land around the city, and this circumstance is thought to operate against an increase of population. The lands can only be leased, for the use of the corporate concern, and they are badly cultivated. About 20,000 acres are still in wood, reserved for fuel, etc., for the use of the inhabitants of Schenectady.

The town or city of Schenectady, or the site of the compact population, is in the southeast part, on the southeast side of the Mohawk, fifteen and a half miles from Albany. The ground is level and rich, and the plain on which the houses stand is washed on the west by the river, beyond which are extensive flats under good cultivation, the prospect of which is very fine. On the east are hills of a moderate height, and the soil a light sand. The town is regularly laid out in streets and squares, and contains about 500 houses, a large proportion of which are of brick; three college edifices, the county buildings, and four houses for public worship, one of which is for the Presbyterians, one Dutch Reformed, one for Methodists, and one for Episcopalians. An elegant wooden bridge across the Mohawk is as ornamental as useful, and it appears to me as one of the best bridges in the state. It is 997 feet in length, of a peculiar construction, and was built by the justly celebrated bridge architect, Theodore Burr. Schenectady has a bank, and its trade is thought by the inhabitants to be increasing, though it has no considerable increase of population. It is situated at the foot of navigation on the Mohawk, whom which place there is a portage to Albany. But boat navigation is much less employed since the construction of turnpikes than formerly, and this branch of trade is progressively decreasing in amount * * * [Besides Union College] there is also a seminary for the education of young ladies, besides a competent number of common schools. Schenectady is one of the most ancient Dutch settlements in this state, and its history is intimately connected with that of the Colony of New York. Its early inhabitants suffered much from frontier exposure to the Indians of the west and north. And in February, 1690, the whole town, which consisted of sixty-three houses, and a church, was wholly destroyed, by a party of French and Indians from Canada. The inhabitants were taken by surprise, and very few escaped.

Amsterdam, a post township of Montgomery County, on the north shore of the Mohawk; bounded north by Mayfield and Broadalbin, east by Saratoga and Schenectady counties, south by Mohawk river or the town of Florida, west, by Johnstown. It extends about ten miles along the Mohawk, and from five to seven miles back from that river. The soil is of various qualities, though generally rich and fertile. The alluvial lands along the Mohawk are proverbially rich, and the uplands are principally a rich tenacious mold or loam. Chuctenunda Creek, a fine millstream from Saratoga County, enters at the northeast angle of Amsterdam, and runs southwest to the Mohawk. This stream falls 120 feet, within 100 rods from its mouth, where it supplies abundance of the best sites for mills, several of which are improved. Here is the extensive iron manufactory of S. and A. Waters, where mill saws, mill irons, and grass scythes are annually manufactured and sold to the amount of $8,000 to $10,000. This establishment cost $6,000, and its enterprising proprietors have obtained a high reputation for their wares. They sell about 6,000 grass scythes annually. There are in all five grain, four saw mills, two carding machines, two fulling mills, two oil mills and a trip hammer on this stream, besides the above manufactory. The Mohawk turnpike leads through Amsterdam, and the other roads are sufficiently numerous. On the turnpike, near the mouth of Chuctenunda Creek, is a small collection of houses called Amsterdam or Veddersburgh, where is the postoffice, a Presbyterian church, a schoolhouse, twenty-five dwellings, and some stores, mechanics shops, mills, etc. This village is fifteen miles from Schenectady, and thirty about northwest from Albany. Another Presbyterian church stands three miles east of this place. The inhabitants of this town are of German, [Dutch], Scotch and English descent, with considerable numbers of Yankees or recent emigrations from the Eastern states. The population in 1810, 3,039; taxable property valued at $272,714 by the assessors.

Florida, a post township in the southeast corner of Montgomery County, on the south shore of Mohawk River, eleven miles southeast of Johnstown, and thirty-five miles northwest of Albany; bounded north by the Mohawk or the town of Amsterdam, southeasterly by Schenectady County, west by Schoharie Creek or the town of Charleston; being in the form of an irregular triangle. The soil is principally a strong loam, resting on a stiff clay, and remarkably fine for wheat, of which it has produced great and sure crops in constant succession for about sixty years. The surface is but moderately uneven, and there are no waste or barren lands; the whole being divided into small farms, very few of which exceed 200 acres. The lands are held by right of soil, and well cultivated. Besides the Mohawk and the Schoharie Creek, on which its longest sides are bounded, the Chuctenunda, a fine mill-stream from Duanesburgh, runs centrally across it to the Mohawk, supplying, in its course in this town, eleven mills. There are five churches or meeting houses in this town, one of which is of stone, for Episcopalians, built by Queen Anne, of England. This is situated near the mouth of Schoharie Creek. There are twelve schoolhouses, and a library of 600 volumes. In 1810 the population was 2,777, senatorial electors 290, taxable property $321,348. The first white inhabitants were some Dutch families from Schenectady, who settled on the Mohawk flats; soon after, or about 1750, six families, from Germany, settled on the Schoharie Creek flats; and Irish and Scotch families, encouraged by Sir William Johnson, spread over the interior. At the close of the Revolutionary war all the vacant lands were soon occupied by emigrants from the Eastern states and New Jersey. There are now in this town eight grain mills, six saw mills, two carding machines, two fulling mills and an oil mill. In this town was the first residence of Sir William Johnson, on his arrival from Ireland, and here, too, on both sides of Schoharie Creek, was the principal town or castle of the Mohawk Indians, so long swayed by his cunning and counsels. And * * * at the mouth of Schoharie Creek, in this town, are also the ruins of Fort Hunter, of considerable importance in the history of the early wars.

Johnstown, a Post-Township, the capital of Montgomery County, 41 miles northwest of Albany; bounded north by St. Lawrence and Franklin counties, east by Wells, Mayfield and Amsterdam, south by Charleston or the Mohawk River, west by Palatine and Stratford. Its extent north and south of 76 miles, and about 10 miles east and west; but the population is all on the south end, while the northern part is clothed with dreary forests, with a soil that forbids cultivation. Like those towns [Stratford and Wells] it sends waters to the St. Lawrence, supplies small head streams of the Hudson, branches of Sacandaga River, and some other small waters. The southern part is moderately uneven, and the soil a strong productive argillaceous loam, or brown grit-mold. It has been settled about 50 years, and Sir William Johnson first led the way into its wilds with a few families from the adjacent settlements on the Mohawk. In 1772, Johnstown was made the capital of the new County of Tryon, now Montgomery; and its inhabitants suffered all the evils attendant on war, during that of the Revolution; nor did they enjoy any quiet till Johnson, the savage leader, with his horde of Indians and Tories, were driven to Canada. War is nothing else than the harvest of bad men; — when all the restraints of civil law are legally removed, that vice may rule, and violence oppose violence in cunning, craft, circumvention, fraud, — and murder be sanctioned by law.

The Village of Johnstown is 4 miles north of the Mohawk, 42 northwest of Albany, on a handsome plain, skirted on the north and west by Cayadutta Creek and south by a low ridge of hills. Here are about 120 houses, the county buildings, an academy, an Episcopal and a Presbyterian Church, the former of which was built by Sir W. Johnson. Cahnawaga [Caughnawaga] Village, near the Mohawk, was once a residence of a part of the Mohawk Indians, where their orchards of apple-trees still remain. Here are about 30 houses, a Dutch Reformed Church, and Cahnawaga Post-Office, 39 miles from Albany, on the western turnpike. There is another church in Kingsborough [Gloversville], an inconsiderable place, but known by this local name, as is Tripe's [Tribe's] Hill, 2 miles east of Cahnawaga. In 1810 the population of Johnstown was 6,225; its taxable inhabitants, 817; senatorial electors, 577; and taxable property, 908,640 dollars.

Charleston, a large Post-Township in the southeast part of Montgomery County, on the south side of the Mohawk, 40 miles north of west from Albany, 10 south of Johnstown; bounded north by Johnstown, or the Mohawk River; east by Florida, or the Schoharie Creek; south by Schoharie County, west by Canajoharie. The area is about 100 square miles. The surface is but moderately broken, though somewhat hilly, while these admit of cultivation almost without exception. There are many ledges of rocks, especially in river hills, but they quarry pretty well, and are useful in building. The soil partakes of a considerable variety, but is principally a clay, or loam, with some tracts of sand and gravel. The Aries-kill, a small mill-stream, spreads over the central part, and the Schoharie Creek affords fine sites for mills. — Charleston has a turnpike across the centre east and west and numerous common roads. Its products are those common to this country, and the township has a large amount of property. The ancient residence of the Mohawk Indians was on both sides, at the mouth of Schoharie Creek, in this town and Florida; and there are still remaining some of their orchards of apple-trees. This township was first settled by some Dutch families along the Mohawk, prior to the Revolution, and this part is still principally owned by their descendants; while the southern part has many inhabitants from the eastern states. — About four-fifths of the land is held in fee; the rest by lease for lives. The domestic manufactures are improving, with its agriculture. There are 2 Presbyterian or Dutch Reformed Churches, 1 for Baptists, and 1 for Methodists, and 30 school-houses. There are 7 grain-mills, 2 carding-machines, 2 fulling-mills, a nail-factory, and a distillery of grain spirits. Wheat is a staple commodity. The population is 5,282; the senatorial electors 660; and the whole amount of property assessed in 1810, 660,513 dollars as estimated by the supervisors.

Canajoharie, a Post-Township, in the south part of Montgomery County, on the south side of the Mohawk River, 49 miles north of west from Albany, 15 southwest of Johnstown; bounded northerly by the Mohawk River, or the Town of Palatine, east by Charleston, southerly by Schoharie and Otsego counties, westerly by Minden. The surface is considerably uneven, but the hills admit of cultivation, and have a strong, durable soil. The lands are generally rich, well cultivated and productive. Wheat is the staple product for market. It is well watered by small rivulets that run into the Mohawk; and by some good mill-streams. The largest of these is Canajoharie or Bowman's Creek, which has several cascades and fine mill-seats; and it receives Platte-kill, another mill-stream, from Sharon, in Schoharie County. The northwest corner reaches to Otsquaga Creek. There is 1 turnpike leading westward through this town, on which the distance to Albany is 49 miles, while on that on the north side of the Mohawk it is 56 miles. There is also a turnpike from the mouth of Canajoharie Creek to Duanesburgh, and the common roads are numerous and good. The descendants of the early German inhabitants possess the most of this township; and, in common with the farmers of the adjacent towns, retain their national prejudices for grain and horses, much to their own detriment. — There are three Dutch Reformed Churches, and one for Baptists, with about 25 school-houses. The population in 1810 was 4,010; the senatorial electors 326; and the taxable property amounted to 542,941 dollars, agreeable to the assessment of taxes that year. The inhabitants are principally farmers; and with a growing taste for household manufactures, are improving in husbandry. Canajoharie Village has about 20 dwellings and some few other buildings. * * * Some lead ores are found in this town, which are very rich but not wrought.

Palatine, a Post-Township of Montgomery County, 10 miles west of Johnstown, and 51 from Albany; bounded north by Stratford, east by Johnstown, southerly by the Mohawk River, west by Oppenheim, which was erected from the west part in 1808. It is well watered, and has abundance of fine mill-seats. The largest stream is Garoga Creek, which rises in Johnstown and runs southwest to the Mohawk. The land is very excellent, and almost all under high cultivation. This town was first settled by some Germans in [1712-] 1724, and though constantly under cultivation ever since that time, its choice lands can hardly be said to have diminished any of their original luxuriance of fertility. That part of this town called Stone-Arabia can hardly be surpassed in any age or country. The soil is a black gritty mold. It is four miles from the river, with a gentle acclivity toward the north, and commands an extensive prospect to the south and southwest. There are two churches, a Calvinist and a Dutch Reformed. — Palatine [Church] Village has about 35 dwellings, some stores, &c., and a stone church. It is 55 miles from Albany, and Stone Arabia 52. The principal part of the inhabitants are of German origin, hardy, industrious and frugal farmers. In consequence of the depredations of the Indians and Tories, a small palisade fort [Fort Paris] was erected last war; and in 1780, when Sir John Johnson over-ran this country, it had a garrison of 200 men. Colonel Brown fell here, opposing this savage White Sachem and his murderous horde.

In 1810, the population of Palatine was 3,111, and the whole number of taxable inhabitants 547; the senatorial electors 311. The taxable property amounted in the same year to 615,103 dollars, agreeable to the valuation of the assessors.

Minden, a Post-Township in the southwest corner of Montgomery County, on the south shore of the Mohawk, 25 miles west of Johnstown, and 62 from Albany; bounded northerly by the Mohawk River, easterly by Canajoharie, southerly by Otsego County, west by Herkimer County. Its extent along the river is 15 miles, seven on the south line, and the area may be 82 square miles. The surface is agreeably undulated with ridges of hills of a moderate height, and pleasant and fertile valleys. The soil is an argillaceous mold, variously mixed with vegetable remains, and the whole underlaid by a strong argillaceous grit or stiff clay. Along the Mohawk are fine flats of alluvion, and also along the Otsquaga or Osquaga Creek, which runs northeast to the Mohawk, as does the Nowadaga also, both good mill-streams. Minden is an excellent township for wheat, and its other products partake of the variety common to this country. Fort-Plain was in this town, and its site still retains that name, where is a small village. Here [at Indian Castle] was the residence of Hendrick, a celebrated Mohawk chief, slain at Lake George in 1755; as also of a large part of the Mohawk Indians, who had here an Indian Castle or town, near the mouth of the Nowadaga. There are three Dutch Reformed Churches; at Fort-Plain, Otsquaga, and at the Indian Castle; the latter of which was built prior to the Revolution for the use of the Indians, the bell of which they attempted to carry with them to Grand River in Canada, when they removed thither during the war; but it was reclaimed, and is now replaced in the church. The inhabitants are of German and Dutch extraction, and there may be near 600 freeholders. In 1810 the population was 4,788, with 382 senatorial electors, and 653 taxable inhabitants. The whole amount of taxable property, $652,408. The early inhabitants suffered very severely during the wars, and indeed knew little of quiet possession till since the Revolution. [Minden, in 1810, included the present township of Danube, Herkimer County].

Oppenheim, a Post-Township of Montgomery County, 15 miles west of Johnstown, 56 miles from Albany; bounded north by Salisbury, east by Palatine, south by Mohawk River, west by Manheim, or east Canada Creek. This town was erected in 1808 from the west part of Palatine. — It is a good township of land, and has long been under cultivation; first settled about 1724. The inhabitants are principally farmers, of German descent, and characterized by habits of hardy industry and frugality. It is well supplied with mill-seats. The surface is moderately uneven, and the soil is principally a strong loam or grit mold. It has the Mohawk Turnpike along that river, and numerous other roads. In common with the other towns of that region, its inhabitants suffered much during the war of the Revolution. In 1810 the population was 2,693, with 424 taxable inhabitants, and the senatorial electors 251. The taxable property, personal, 35,822, real estate, 295,573 dollars, making an aggregate of 331,395 dollars. The Post-Office in this town was established in 1812 [at present St. Johnsville, which township and village was then in Oppenheim].

Manheim, a Post-Township of Montgomery County, adjoining the Mohawk River, 25 miles west of Johnstown, 60 from Albany; bounded north by Salisbury, east by East Canada Creek, or the Town of Oppenheim, south by the Mohawk River, west by the Town and County of Herkimer, being about six miles square. Except along the Mohawk, there are no intervales, but the upland is of superior quality, and probably yields as much wheat as any town of the same size in the county. Its situation is high, is well watered, and healthy: — has no mountains, lakes or ponds, nor metals, yet discovered. The inhabitants are principally farmers, though with a competent number of mechanics, and there are 200 families, principally of Dutch extraction [incorrect, they are mostly German]. There is one Dutch Reformed Calvinist Church, and a number of school-houses and schools. Four grist-mills, and one carding-machine. The first settlements commenced about the year 1770, but the inhabitants were driven off during the Revolutionary War, and returned with the peace. — Population in 1810, 1,444, and 221 senatorial electors; when the taxable property amounted to $229,107, and the whole number of taxable inhabitants was 221. Manheim has the great [Mohawk] turnpike from Albany to the western counties, and other common roads.

Herkimer, a Post-Township, the capital of Herkimer County, is situated on the north shore of the Mohawk, 78 miles west of Albany, and 14 east of Utica; bounded north by Newport and Fairfield, east by Fairfield and the County of Montgomery, south by the Mohawk, west by Schuyler. It extends along the Mohawk near 15 miles, and the north line is indented by Fairfield, which approaches within about three miles of the river. The alluvial flats along the river are extensive, and were originally called German Flats, like those in that town on the opposite shore of the Mohawk. The land is of a superior quality, with considerable diversity of soil and surface. West Canada Creek comes from the north and enters the Mohawk in this town, near the village of Herkimer. This is a fine rapid stream, and abounds with rapids and falls, and has at all times abundance of water for mills. And there are some other mill-streams; at the Little Falls are also great advantages for water-works. This town has been long settled, and is principally under some kind of improvement. The east part, near the Little Falls, is broken, rugged, and comparatively wild. In 1810 this town had 415 families, 282 senatorial electors, and a population of 2,743; when the taxable property was assessed at a valuation of $879,051. There are two very considerable, incorporated villages. Herkimer Village is pleasantly situated on the west side of West Canada Creek, about one-half mile from that stream, and the same distance from the Mohawk. There are 95 houses and stores, the county buildings, and a handsome church, with a steeple and spire of 140 [?] feet in height. The site is a fine gravelly plain, and the buildings, principally of wood, are handsomely arranged on two parallel streets.

Seven miles east of this is the Village of Little Falls, with a Post-Office of the same name, 71 miles from Albany, on the western turnpike to Utica, as is Herkimer also. Here is a canal with eight locks, about 50 houses and stores and a church. The site of this village is very rocky and unpleasant, chosen for a place of business rather than pleasure. The rocks are curiously disposed and much worn by the Mohawk, which appears to have transversed the whole valley from hill to hill, and even to very near their summits, of which there are indubitable evidences, well worthy the attention of the curious. The locks and canal navigation of this river are subjects of less consideration than formerly, and much less than is generally imagined: because much less used. At present, nine-tenths of the transportation of this country to and from Albany, is performed by land. The navigation of rapid rivers is attended with great inconveniences, insuperable in a country of considerable population, having good roads. This village is finely situated for manufactories, and this, with its trade, will probably make it the site of a populous town at no very remote period.

German Flats, a Post-Township on the south shore of the Mohawk, in Herkimer County, five miles south of Herkimer, and 75 miles from Albany; bounded north by the Mohawk, or by Herkimer, east by Minden in Montgomery County, south by Warren, west by Frankfort. The extensive alluvial flats in this town, as well as those in Herkimer, were settled at an early period by German families, and have now been known as the German Flats, about 80 or 89 years, from which the town has its name. The soil of these flats is remarkably rich, nor is its fertility hardly diminished by German husbandry through such a long series of years. The uplands are rich and productive and the whole is under cultivation. A canal has been cut around the Wolf Rift in the Mohawk, which is five miles above the Little Falls. This canal is one and one-fourth mile in length, and affords sites for water-works, and there are two small millstreams. There are seven grain-mills, several saw-mills, some carding machines, and a distillery lately erected. There is one meeting-house, which has been built about 63 years, and a number of school-houses. The inhabitants, in common with those of the adjoining towns, suffered much in the early wars and in that of the Revolution; and here was Fort Herkimer. In 1756, after the surrender of Oswego, the French over-ran this county; and in 1757, after the surrender of Fort William Henry, the settlements at the German Flats were laid desolate by fire and sword. — In 1810 German Flats has 371 families, 207 senatorial electors, and the whole population was 2,229, 17 of which are slaves. The taxable property, $221,407.

Frankfort, a township of Herkimer County, lying along the south side of the Mohawk River, having German Flats on the east, Litchfield on the south, Whitestown in the County of Oneida on the west, and the Mohawk River on the north, which separates it from the towns of Herkimer and Schuyler. A large part of this town is very broken and thinly inhabited; but along the Mohawk the intervales are pretty extensive, and of good quality, producing excellent crops of grain, grass, &c. The settlements have never progressed very rapidly, and the town is supposed to contain about 1,500 inhabitants. There are no public buildings, except school-houses, which are erected in every district. A small mill-stream affords good mill-seats, and there are several saw-mills, grist-mills, a fulling-mill, and a distillery. Almost every family manufacture their own clothing, and the inhabitants are, at present, pretty industrious and thriving. Population in 1810, 1,314; senatorial electors, 111; number of families, 220. The amount of taxable property, 121,467 dollars.

Schuyler, a township of Herkimer County, about eight miles north of west from Herkimer, six miles northeast of Utica, and 86 from Albany; bounded north by Newport, east by Herkimer, south by Mohawk River or the Town of Frankfort, west by Oneida County. Its mill-streams are some small brooks that fall south into the Mohawk, and several streams that run east to West Canada Creek. The soil is of good quality, with some hills, and there are abundance of springs and brooks. It has the Mohawk Turnpike along that river, where are fine flats, and its other roads are sufficiently numerous. The taxable property of Schuyler in 1810, agreeable to the valuation on the supervisor's books, amounted to 163,546 dollars, when the whole population was 2,107; the number of families 324, and of senatorial electors, 124.

Whitestown, the principal town and half shire of the County of Oneida, situated on the Mohawk River, 95 miles northwesterly from Albany, including Utica, &c., and has three Post-Offices: bounded northerly by the Mohawk, easterly by Herkimer County, southerly by Paris, westerly by Westmoreland and Rome. The form is very irregular, and the area about equal to 40 square miles. If we trace the progressive population of this town minutely, we shall find much to excite our admiration. In January, 1785 [June, 1784], Mr. Hugh White, from Connecticut, with a young family, became the first settler. At that period, little was known of the value and fertility of the western wilds of this state; and industry and enterprize were depressed by individual and national poverty. For the first five or six years, the increase of population was slow, and of little promise, but at about the expiration of that period, the spirit of emigration appeared in the eastern states, which has since swelled to a torrent; and thousands and thousands who now enjoy the rich bounties of nature in the western country are indebted to this source for their many blessings. No people on earth possess the means of a greater share of individual happiness than those; — nor can a competency, derived from any other employment, confer so much happiness, as that of industrious agriculturalist, in a genial climate, blest with a fertile soil and a good government; — such is the constitution of man and society, when collectively considered. Let civilians theorise as they may, it is in such scenes and under such circumstances that man assumes his proper dignity in the scale of being; and, possessed of such means of independence, expands his mind, and diffuses happiness by reciprocation. In 1788 the Town of German Flats was divided, and a new town erected, which was named Whitestown, in honor of Mr. White. In 1791 Herkimer County was erected from Montgomery, including this part of the country; and several new towns formed of this by subdivisions. In 1798 the County of Oneida was erected, by a subdivision of Herkimer, and Whitestown included within this county. Successive subdivisions have at length restricted the limits of Whitestown to about a medial of five miles by nine. It is situated immediately on the great thoroughfare between Albany and the western lakes: between Canada and the principal commercial sea-ports of the American States on the Atlantic Ocean. In addition to the Mohawk, which washes its northern boundary, the Oriskany and Sadahqueda creeks run northerly into the Mohawk, affording a great abundance of the best sites for hydraulic works, and extensive and fertile alluvial flats. Indeed, says a correspondent, these streams are almost literally covered with mills, through their whole extent in this town. This town contains three large Post-Villages; Utica, incorporated, Whitesborough and New-Hartford, separately described. — Utica, on the site of old Fort Schuyler, contains 300 houses, and a population of 1,700 souls. It is the commercial capital of the great western district, and the central point of all the great avenues of communication. Whitesborough, the next in magnitude, is less commercial, but excells in beauty and elegance. The courts for Oneida County are held alternately here and at Rome. Here are 100 houses, on a street of one and three-quarters miles in length, and about 600 souls. New Hartford is the finest farming village, and has its full share of trade, industry and useful arts. Whitestown, including these villages, stands unrivalled in the United States, in wealth, population, trade and improvements, among land towns of so recent settlement; and none in this state, of the same area, presents so great a population. There are seven principal churches, one Episcopal, three Presbyterian, two Baptist, in one of which the service is performed in the Welsh language, and one of Welsh Independents; beside some smaller houses dedicated to the same purpose. There are three grammar schools, one in each village, and common school houses and schools in convenient abundance. The manufacturing spirit has taken deep root in this town. A cotton manufactory, on the Sadahqueda, has 512 spindles (soon to be extended to 1,000), and employs 200 families in picking cotton, etc., and fifty persons in the factory. This establishment belongs to the Oneida Manufacturing Society, Incorporated, who connect also with it a machine shop, trip-hammer, and accommodations for bleaching and dyeing. The New Hartford association has been organized with a capital of $200,000; a third company, with a capital of $300,000, has commenced an establishment for a cotton and woolen factory, on the Oriskany, on a very large scale. Connected with this is an association for the propagation of valuable sheep; and a flock of 500 already collected, among which are many Merinoes, of different grades of blood. Six hundred acres of land, on the banks of the Mohawk, are appropriated to this purpose and named Mount Merino. A fourth company is also formed, with a capital of $20,000, for weaving, dyeing, and finishing cloths. The numerous turnpikes and roads that center in this town, with the navigation of the Mohawk, etc., give great facility of communication, and indicate the growing importance of the place. This town is considerably embellished in appearance, by many elegant seats of men of opulence, and elegant private mansions. The population of Whitestown, by the census of 1810, 4,912, and there are 533 senatorial electors. Two miles west of New Hartford is a pleasant collection of about thirty houses, called Middle Settlement.

Utica, a flourishing incorporated post village, the commercial capital of the great western district of this state, situated on the south bank of the Mohawk, ninety-three miles westward of Albany, in the town of Whitestown, Oneida County. This village stands on the site of Old Fort Schuyler, thirteen miles southeast of Rome, anciently Fort Stanwix. See Rome. It is handsomely laid out into streets, squares, etc., and was incorporated as a village in 1798 — named in the caption, Old Fort Schuyler Village, and the act granting the certain village privileges, Utica. In April, 1805, this act of the Legislature was repealed, and a new one passed defining the limits of Utica, and granting corporate village powers to the inhabitants. At present, Utica, though small in area, comprises a population of 1,700 souls; has 300 houses and stores, a Presbyterian and an Episcopal church, a grammar school, etc. There are many mills, factories, mechanics shops, and a vast many buildings other than those enumerated. There are several printing offices, and large book stores. Weekly papers are published here, and widely circulated through the surrounding country. The [Baggs] hotel at Utica is an elegant establishment; and the many fine private mansions of gentlemen of taste and opulence give Utica a character in this respect worthy [of] a great commercial town. The Manhattan Bank has established a branch at Utica; and the period is not remote when the monied capital and brisk trade of this place will obtain a charter for a bank here, with a great capital. The soil of Utica is fertile, and the situation healthy and pleasant. Utica is a central point for al1 the principal avenues of communication by common roads and turnpikes, and forms the key of trade and travel between the western country and Atlantic ports and towns. N. Lat. 43° 6', 1° 12 1/2' W. Lon., from New York.

Deerfield, a township of Oneida County, on the north shore of the Mohawk, opposite Whitestown; bounded northerly by Trenton and Herkimer County, easterly by Herkimer County, south by Whitestown or the Mohawk River, west by Floyd. Its waters, except those on which it is bounded, are very small and inconsiderable. It extends northerly to West Canada Creek, has the Mohawk on the south, and Nine-Mile Creek courses along the western boundary. This town was organized in 1801. It enjoys the common advantages of navigation on the Mohawk, and has numerous roads; that to the Black River country from Utica leads centrally across it north and south, and a good wooden bridge is constructed across the Mohawk, between Utica and the little village of Deerfield, which has about twenty houses. A scarcity of mill-seats is felt, but the lands are productive of the common agricultural products. The whole population in 1810 amounted to 1,232, and there were 117 senatorial electors. The vicinity of Deerfield to the populous villages of Utica, Whitesborough and Rome, while it confers some advantages, retards the growth of any compact villages within this town, and leaves little for local detail.

New Hartford, a flourishing post village of Whitestown, Oneida County, situated at the junction of the Genesee and Oxford turnpikes, 100 miles westerly of Albany, and on the Sadahqueda Creek. This village contains about sixty-five houses, a Presbyterian church, a grammar school, and some elegant private mansions. It is distinguished for the excellency and abundance of its agricultural products and improvements. The Sadahqueda is excellent for mill-seats; such is the rapidity of its descent, as to afford good sites every fifty rods. In and near this village are two paper mills, an oil mill, a large cotton factory, a grain mill, two saw mills, a clothiery, two carding machines, a nail factory, and a trip-hammer.

Paris, a post township of Oneida County, eight or nine miles south of Utica, and 106 from Albany; bounded north by Westmoreland and Whitestown, east by Herkimer County, south by Bridgewater and Sangerfield, west by Augusta and Vernon. The area is about equal to ten square miles, and includes Brothertown, the residence of the Brothertown Indians. The surface is but gently uneven, the soil is of a superior quality, and almost every acre is arable. The principal creeks are the Oriskany, and the Sadahqueda, or Saughtaughquoit, or Saughquoit, both very good sized mill streams. This town is settled almost wholly by emigrants from the Eastern states; and the first settler, Moses Foote, Esq., is now living in Clinton Settlement. This is the most populous township in the county, and, next to Whitestown, the most wealthy. There are seven churches erected, and several flourishing villages. Of the churches, three are for Congregationalists, two Methodists, one Episcopalian, and one for Baptists. There are also thirty-four schoolhouses and common schools; and one flourishing seminary of learning, the first erected in the western district, known by the name of Hamilton Oneida Academy [later Hamilton College in 1812]. The corner stone of the academy edifice was laid by Baron Steuben, a zealous and efficient patron of the institution. There are also twelve grain mills, twenty-four saw mills, six carding machines, three trip-hammer works, seven distilleries, seven tanneries, and one factory for weaving on a large scale. The roads are good, and conveniently disposed; and the Oxford and Seneca turnpikes both lead through this town. There are two postoffices; Paris, at Paris Village; and Clinton, at the village of Clinton. Iron ore abounds, but the quality of that now wrought is not good. The land is held principally in fee, and the character of the inhabitants that of an industrious, agricultural, sober and moral people. Clinton village, in the northern part of this town, is pleasantly situated on Oriskany Creek, nine miles from Utica, has about fifty-five houses, an academy, a meeting house, some mills, and a postoffice of the same name; 102 miles from Albany. The academy has three stories, and is 88 feet long, and 48 in width. Paris Village, or Paris Hill, two miles further south, has thirty-four houses, two churches, and a post office. Sadahqueda, or Saughquoit, is also a pleasant compact settlement, and has a Methodist meeting house, and a Presbyterian now building. Another little collection of twenty-five houses, on the Oriskany, is called Hanover. The population of Paris, 5,418; and there are 652 senatorial electors.

Rome, a post and half shire township of Oneida County, fifteen miles northwest of Utica; bounded north by Western, east by Floyd, south by Whitestown and Westmoreland, west by Verona and Bengal. The length is eight to eleven miles, and about seven miles wide. It embraces the head of navigation of the Mohawk, and of Wood Creek, which here approach within three-quarters of a mile, and are connected by a canal of one and a half miles in length, of a capacity for boats of ten to fifteen tons. Along the Mohawk and its waters the land is of a superior quality, gently uneven and excellent for farming; while that part bordering on Wood Creek is very level, and too wet except for grass. Watered by the Mohawk, Wood Creek and their branches, and washed on its western boundary by Fish Creek, and having the canal in its center, the irrigation is abundant, and adds much to the comparative value of this township. Its position is commanding; but the progress of population has been retarded by the general tenure of titles to lands, which are life or durable leases. An extensive yellow pine plain, in the west part of Rome, yields considerable tar, and lumber which is very valuable. Iron ore, of the bog kind, is said to abound in the west part, and along Wood Creek. There are three grain and two saw mills on the Mohawk, three on Wood Creek, two on smaller streams, and a manufactory of scythes, shovels, spades, hoes, axes, etc. There are also two carding machines, four distilleries, a small wooden manufactory, a fulling mill, and a brewery in the town of Rome. In this town was Fort Stanwix, built about 1758, by the British, at the enormous expense of $266,400, and, from a heap of ruins, rebuilt and enlarged in the Revolutionary war, and called New Fort Schuyler. Its ruins are barely visible, near the village of Rome, between the waters of the Mohawk and Wood Creek. The county buildings in this town are a brick courthouse and a jail; and the state has erected a brick arsenal here, for the deposit of arms, etc. There is one house of worship, belonging to the Presbyterians, and two congregations of Baptists, and a few Methodists. But some of the schoolhouses, of which there are seven or eight, are used for worshiping assemblies on the Sabbath. The first settlers of this town were some Dutch families, who, faithful to the habits if not the genius of their nation, planted themselves here for the purpose of carrying boats and loads from river to river, with an eye, probably, to a future canal. At present, the principal population of Rome consists of emigrants from the Eastern states, and may probably amount to near 2,000 souls. Rome, like Whitestown, is a kind of central point for roads, and they are kept in pretty good repair. That leading to Black River, called the state road, is the most travelled, if we except the one to Whitestown. In a central position, adjacent to the canal, lies the village of Rome. Here are about fifty dwelling houses and a considerable number of other buildings. About half a mile from the village, on the Mohawk, are valuable sites for hydraulic works, where is a merchant mill, and other water machinery. It was in this town that the severe battle at Oriskany was fought with the Indians, when General Herkimer lost his life. In 1810 the whole population was 2,003, with 182 senatorial electors.

Rome, a pleasant and thriving post village, in the Township of Rome, Oneida County, 108 miles north of west from Albany, and thirteen miles from Utica, in the same direction, N. Latitude 43° 12', 1° 27' E. Longitude from New York. The village lies on the north side of the canal, connecting the Mohawk with Wood Creek; commencing at the Mohawk, and extending westward about one-half mile on a handsome street. There are about fifty wooden dwelling houses, a brick courthouse, in which are held the courts for Oneida County alternately with Utica; a jail, Presbyterian meeting house, an arsenal for the deposit of military stores, and sundry shops, etc., in all about ninety.

Camden, a post township of Oneida County, one tier of towns north of Oneida Lake, watered by the west branch of Fish Creek. It consists of two townships, Linly and Bloomfield, on De Witt's maps, being about twelve miles east and west, and six north and south. It is bounded north by Florence, east by Western, south by Bengal, west by Williamstown. It is well watered by the west branch of Fish Creek, and its branches, which afford abundance of good sites for mills. The upland is generally uneven, though not mountainous, but along the rivers and creeks, the flats are extensive and the soil very rich and productive, being a sandy loam, easy of tillage. The whole may be pronounced an excellent body of land, better adapted for grain than most of the surrounding country. The timber is mostly beech, maple, basswood, and some hemlock and a few groves of white pine, all of luxuriant growth. This town has rapidly increased in population and wealth, having been settled about twelve years, and it now contains about 1,100 inhabitants, principally farmers from Connecticut. It has one Congregational church, and seven schoolhouses. The society is good, and the inhabitants are remarkably frugal and industrious. Mills, roads, bridges, etc., are in convenient abundance, and there are a pretty competent number of common mechanics. The population in 1810 was 1,132, with 178 electors.

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