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SCHENECTADY DIGITAL HISTORY ARCHIVE

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History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925
Chapter 89: The Mohawk Valley in 1840.

[This information is from Vol. II, pp. 1329-1339 of History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925, edited by Nelson Greene (Chicago: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1925). It is in the Reference collection of the Schenectady County Public Library at R 974.7 G81h. This online edition includes lists of portraits, maps and illustrations. Some images have been relocated to the area in the text where they are discussed. As noted by Paul Keesler in his article, "The Much Maligned Mr. Greene," some information in this book has been superseded by later research or was provided incorrectly by local sources.]

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1840 — Description of the Mohawk Valley from Haskell & Smith's Gazetteer of the United States — Six Mohawk Valley counties of Schenectady, Schoharie, Montgomery, Fulton, Herkimer, Oneida — Towns of Waterford, Cohoes, Schenectady (city), Amsterdam, Caughnawaga, Fonda, Fultonville, Johnstown, Gloversville, Canajoharie, Palatine Bridge, Fort Plain, St. Johnsville, Little Falls, Herkimer, Mohawk, Frankfort, Utica, Whitesboro, Rome, Camden, Boonville, Vernon, Clinton, Oneida Castle, Waterville, Bridgewater, Schoharie, Middleburg, Cobleskill.

The following is a survey of the Mohawk Valley in 1840. The descriptions are taken from Haskell & Smith's U. S. Gazetteer of 1840 [i.e., Daniel Haskell and J. Calvin Smith, A Complete Descriptive and Statistical Gazetteer of the United States of America]. The year is one of great interest for the Mohawk Valley, particularly in comparison with the Valley description of 1810 copied from Spafford's Gazetteer.

In 1810 there was comparatively little manufacturing in the Valley, with the exception of the Utica district and Little Falls. The Mohawk Valley was then an agricultural region, with a farming population in excess of that of 1925.

In 1840 there was a population, of 226,399 in the Mohawk Valley. It was still an agricultural section, but manufacturing had vastly increased and there had been great growth of towns. In 1810 transportation through the Mohawk Valley was provided by the Mohawk River and the Mohawk turnpikes. In 1840 commerce and transportation facilities in the Valley had been practically revolutionized by the building of the Erie Canal and the railroad line running from Albany to Syracuse, composing what is now the Mohawk Division of the New York Central Railroad. By 1840 the Mohawk Valley, to a large extent, had assumed much of the modern character which it bears today. Changes since then have been largely of growth and development of the basic features of human life existent in our Valley in 1840.

The descriptive material in Haskell & Smith's Gazetteer of 1840 is unusually concise and illustrative in its character. In presenting it here a selection has been first made of the descriptions of the six Mohawk Valley counties — Schenectady, Schoharie, Montgomery, Fulton, Herkimer and Oneida. Following these, the village and town descriptions are arranged in their order following the Mohawk westward from Waterford, at its outlet into the Hudson, to Rome, at the western end of our Mohawk Valley travel routes. This arrangement, like that of 1810, will give the reader an unusually clear and informing picture of the Valley in 1840. Comparison of these descriptions of the Mohawk River country in 1810 and 1840 with that of 1925, at the end of this work, will prove of interest.

Haskell & Smith's Gazetteer describes the six Mohawk Valley counties in 1840 as follows:

Schenectady County, N. Y. Situated toward the E. part of the state, and contains 200 square m. The surface is diversified; soil, various. The flats along the Mohawk r. are extensive, and very fertile. Watered by Mohawk r. The Erie Canal and the western and northern railroads pass through it. Capital, Schenectady. There were in 1840, neat cattle 10808, sheep 18094, swine 13063; wheat 13113 bush. produced, rye 52278, Ind. corn 62597, buckwheat 41288, barley 100524, oats 216963, potatoes 240535, sugar 4423 pounds; 45 stores, cap. $78,800; 2 furnaces, 7 fulling m., 2 woollen fac., 1 cotton fac. 2,000 s., 23 saw m., 1 oil m., 1 printing office, 1 weekly newspaper. Cap. in manufac. $113,700. 1 college, 258 students, 3 acad., 83 students, 57 schools, 1972 scholars. Pop. 17387.

Schoharie County, N. Y. Situated toward the E. part of the state, and contains 621 sq. ms. Organized in 1795. The surface is hilly and mountainous; soil, fertile, especially on the streams. On the uplands it is adapted to grazing. Watered by Schoharie Creek and its tributaries. Water limestone, bog iron ore, and sulphur springs are found. The latter, at Sharon, are becoming celebrated. Capital, Schoharie. There were in 1840, neat cattle 37,633, sheep 71,258, swine 31,865; wheat 72,871 bush. produced, rye 129,342, Indian corn 67,890, buckwheat 80,609, barley 217,478, oats 497,953, potatoes 600,396, sugar 133,766 pounds; 81 stores, cap. $188,500; 30 fulling m., 1 woollen fac., 32 tanneries, 1 brewery, 36 grist m., 160 saw m., 1 paper fac., 2 printing offices, 1 weekly newspaper. Cap. in manufac. $163,000. 5 acad., 306 students, 199 schools, 9,294 scholars. Pop. 32,358.

Montgomery County, N. Y. Centrally situated in the E. part of the state, and contains 356 sq. ms. The surface is mountainous and hilly, * * *. Drained by East Canada, Otsquake, and Schoharie creeks [and Garoga, Canajoharie, Cayadutta and North and South Chuctanunda], which flows into the Mohawk. The alluvial flats on the streams are very fertile. Capital, Fonda. There were in 1840, neat cattle 26,806, sheep 36,588, swine 29,108; wheat 34,281 bushels produced. rye 40,868, Ind. corn 90,374, buckwheat 38,312, barley 193,530, oats 422,415, potatoes 559,829, sugar 51,691 pounds; 94 stores, capital $370,150; 2 furnaces, 8 fulling m., 1 woollen fac., 16 tanneries, 6 distilleries, 2 breweries, 3 flouring m., 21 grist m., 67 saw m. Capital in manufac. $330,404. 3 acad., 396 students, 116 sch., 5,555 scholars. Pop. 35,818.

Fulton County, N. Y. Situated N. E. of the centre of the state, and contains 500 sq. ms. The surface is hilly, with some mountains. The valleys have a fertile soil. Drained by the Sacandaga r. and East Canada cr. [Garoga, Cayadutta, Kennyetto and Mayfield crs.] Capital, Johnstown. There were in 1840, neat cattle 19,982, sheep 32,525, swine 14,042; wheat 25,162 bush. produced, rye 33,573, Ind. corn 59,886, buckwheat 31,011, barley 22,860, oats 245,718, potatoes 402,954, sugar 80,129 pounds; 57 stores, capital $143,825; 1 furnace, 11 fulling m., 5 woollen fac., 23 tanneries, 2 rope fac., 19 grist m., 156 saw m., 2 oil m., 7 paper fac., 3 printing offices, 1 bindery, 1 periodical, 2 weekly newspapers. Capital in manufac. $541,643. 2 acad., 235 students, 89 sch., 4,059 scholars. Pop. 18,049.

Herkimer County, N. Y. Situated centrally toward the N. E. part of the state, and contains 1,370 sq. ms. Organized in 1791, but since enlarged. The Adirondack Mountains pass through its S. part, being broken through by the Mohawk at Little Falls. The surface is diversified, being generally broken, hilly, or mountainous, excepting S. of the Mohawk, where it is [more] level and very fertile. Iron ore is extensively found, and some gypsum and lead. Beautiful rock crystals are abundant in the neighborhood of Little Falls. In the N. part are numerous lakes and ponds. The Erie canal and the Utica and Schenectady railroad, pass through the Co. Capital, Herkimer. There were in 1840 neat cattle 55,437, sheep 80,182, swine 33,957; wheat 84,723 bush. produced, rye 15,935, Ind. corn 160,920, buckwheat 29,035, barley 126,900, oats 580,738, potatoes 850,865, sugar 311,138 pounds; 142 stores, cap. $427,790; 25 lumber yards, cap. $12,500; 7 furnaces, 7 forges, 24 fulling m., 9 woollen fac., 5 cotton fac. 5,064 sp., 38 tanneries, 6 distilleries, 1 brewery, 3 flouring m., 35 grist m., 9 woollen fac., 4 printing offices, 1 bindery, 1 periodical, 2 weekly newspapers. Cap. in manufac. $921,633. 1 college, 280 students, 191 sch., 8,522 scholars. Pop. 37,477.

Oneida County, N. Y. Situated N. E. of the centre of the state, and contains 1,101 sq. ms. The surface is diversified by gentle hills and well cultivated valleys; soil, very productive, adapted to grain. Drained by Black and Mohawk rivers, and their tributaries, and by Oriskany, Sadaquada, Fish, Wood and Oneida creeks. It contains potters' clay, iron ore, gypsum, water limestone, peat and marl. The Erie canal, with the Chenango canal, and the line of western railroads, pass through it. Capitals, Utica, Rome, and Whitesboro. There were in 1840, neat cattle 92,669, sheep 177,070, swine 66,543, wheat 238,159 bush. produced, rye 6,064, Ind. corn 364,075, buckwheat 30,240, barley 98,331, oats 657,952, potatoes 1,574,109, hops 38,724 pounds, sugar 286,502; 2 commercial and 3 commission houses, cap. $58,000; 382 stores, cap. $2,684,575; 5 lumber yards, cap. $55,400; 14 furnaces, 1 forge, 40 fulling m., 23 woollen fac., 13 cotton fac. 37,316 sp., 2 dyeing and printing establishments, 61 tanneries, 2 rope fac., 11 distilleries, 4 breweries, 3 glass fac., 2 potteries, 5 flouring m., 57 grist m., 248 saw m., 2 oil m., 6 paper fac., 9 printing offices, 9 weekly newspapers. Cap. in manufac. $2,829,376. 2 colleges, 190 students, 441 sch., 20,166 scholars. Pop. 85,310.

The review of the Mohawk Valley by towns, from Haskell and Smith's Gazetteer of 1840, follows. The mileage distances given as "W" refer to the distances of towns from Washington, such mileages being evidently airline distances. The abbreviations used are po., postoffice; v., village; t., township; r., river; cr., creek, etc.:

Waterford, postoffice, township, Saratoga co., N. Y., 10 N. Albany, 380 W. The surface is undulating; soil, sand and alluvion. Watered by Mohawk and Hudson rivers, which here unite. The village is situated on the W. bank of Hudson r., at the head of sloop navigation. It contains 4 churches — 1 Presbyterian, 1 Dutch Reformed, 1 Episcopal, and 1 Methodist — an academy, a female seminary, a bank, 20 stores and groceries, 1 cotton fac., 4 flouring m., 1 grist m., 2 machine shops, 1 twine fac., 1 furnace, 1 fire engine fac., 1 button fac., 1 plaster m., 2 saw m., 1 tannery, 200 dwellings, and about 1,400 inhabitants. Six sloops and schooners and several canal boats are owned here. The Champlain canal passes through the place, and also the Troy and Saratoga railroad. The canal here enters Hudson r. A bridge connects the place with Lansingburgh. It [the township of Waterford] has 28 stores, cap. $47,535; 3 lumber yards, cap. $1,000; 1 tannery, 1 grist m., 1 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $92,115. 5 sch. 375 scholars. Pop. 1,824.

Cohoes, postoffice, village, Watervliet township, Albany co., N. Y., 8 N. Albany, 378 W. Situated on the S. W. bank of the Mohawk r., a little below Cohoes Falls, near the junction of the Erie and Champlain canals. Here is a cotton fac. with 7,000 sp. and 220 looms, 1 flouring m., 3 saw m., 1 iron and brass foundry, and various other manufactories. The village contains 6 churches — 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist, 1 Dutch Reformed, and 1 Universalist — 12 stores, 200 dwellings, and about 2,000 inhabitants. The water power, which might be employed at this place, is very extensive.

Schenectady, city, capital Schenectady Co., N. Y., has a city hall, jail, clerk's and surrogate's office, a market, lyceum, female academy, 3 banking houses, besides a savings bank, 9 churches — 1 Dutch Reformed, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist, 1 Cameronian, 1 Universalist, 1 Roman Catholic, 1 African, 100 stores, 1 cotton factory, 2 flouring mills, 2 iron foundries, 1 brewery, 1 tobacco factory, 1 steam flouring mill, 3 tanneries, 2 machine shops, 1 plough and wagon factory, 1,000 dwellings and 6,784 inhabitants. The buildings of Union College, 3 in number and spacious, are pleasantly situated on an eminence, half a mile east of the city. The institution was founded in 1795, contains a president and 11 professors and other instructors, has had 2,029 alumni, of whom 308 have been ministers of the gospel, has 258 students and 13,000 volumes in its libraries. Its commencements are on the 4th Wednesday of July. Its philosophical and other apparatus is very complete. Attached to this college are about 250 acres of land, part of which is designed to be appropriated to groves and walks.

Amsterdam, p. v., Montgomery Co., N. Y., has a toll bridge over the Mohawk, 4 churches, 1 bank, 1 academy, 1 female seminary, 14 stores, 2 grist mills, 2 furnaces, 1 carpet manufactory, 1 printing office, 1 scythe factory and various other manufactories, with 250 dwellings and a population of about 1,700.

Caughnawaga [Eastern Fonda], Montgomery Co., N. Y., is situated on the north side of the Mohawk river, connected with Fultonville, opposite, by a toll-bridge. It contains one Dutch Reformed church, erected in 1766, 2 stores, 30 dwellings and about 200 inhabitants.

Fonda, p. o., Montgomery Co., N. Y., has a court house, jail, 5 stores, a large flouring mill, 1 saw mill, 1 plaster mill, 1 carding machine, 1 threshing machine factory, 50 dwellings and about 350 inhabitants.

Fultonville, p. o., Montgomery co., N. Y., is situated on the south bank of the Mohawk river, on the Erie canal. It contains one Dutch Reformed church, 4 stores, 2 groceries, a dry dock and boat yard, 60 dwellings and about 400 inhabitants. A bridge here crosses the Mohawk.

[Thus Fonda-Caughnawaga (present Fonda) in 1840, had a population of about 550. Present Fonda-Fultonville had then about 1,000 population.]

Johnstown, p. o., v., capital Fulton co., N. Y. In 1840 Johnstown had a court house and jail, a county clerk's office, an academy, a bank, 6 churches, 15 stores, 2 grist mills, 1 gun and rifle factory, 1 carriage factory and 2 printing offices and weekly newspapers.

[No population of Johnstown in 1840 is given in the Haskell and Smith Gazetteer.]

Gloversville, Fulton co., N. Y., has 2 churches, 2 stores, 1 grist mill, 1 saw mill, 50 dwellings, with 300 inhabitants. Buckskin moccasins as well as gloves and mittens are made here.

Canajoharie, p. o., v., Montgomery co., N. Y. The village is situated on the south side of Mohawk river. Incorporated in 1829. It has 4 churches — 1 Presbyterian, 1 Dutch Reformed, 1 Lutheran and 1 Methodist — an academy, 10 stores, 2 grist mills, 2 distilleries, 1 brewery, 1 furnace, 2 saw mills. It furnishes fine stone for building and for the construction of locks in the Erie canal. The Erie canal passes through the center of the village. The Catskill and Canajoharie railroad will terminate here. [No population is given but about 800 in Canajoharie and 1,000 in Canajoharie-Palatine are indicated.]

Palatine Bridge, Montgomery co., N. Y., is opposite the village of Canajoharie with which it is connected by a bridge. It contains 1 church, 3 stores, 30 dwellings and about 200 inhabitants. Here is a fine quarry of building stone.

Fort Plain, p. o., v., Montgomery co., N. Y., is situated on the south side of the Mohawk on the Erie canal. Incorporated in 1832. It contains 1 Dutch Reformed church and 1 Universalist church, 1 bank, 16 stores, 1 grist mill, 1 saw mill, 1 plaster mill, 1 furnace, 1 distillery, 200 dwellings and about 1,400 inhabitants. Fine stone is here quarried for canal locks.

St. Johnsville, p. o., v., Montgomery co., N. Y. The village is situated on the north side of Mohawk river, and contains 1 church, 2 stores, 2 grist mills, 2 saw mills, 1 tannery, 1 sash factory, 1 forge and furnace, 1 carding machine, 1 fulling mill, 35 dwellings and about 350 inhabitants.

Dolgeville, Herkimer and Fulton counties, was called Brockett's Bridge in 1840 and probably had 150 people. It is not described in the gazetteer of 1840.

Little Falls, p. o., v., Herkimer co., N. Y. The village is situated on both sides of the Mohawk river in a most romantic situation and contains 5 churches — 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopal, 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist and 1 Roman Catholic — an academy, 2 printing offices, 1 bank, 30 stores and groceries, 1 woolen factory, 3 paper mills, 3 flouring mills, 2 plaster mills, 1 trip hammer works, 4 furnaces, 1 machine shop, 1 distillery, 1 brewery, 1 fulling mill, 1 sash factory. The river here has a fall of 42 feet in half a mile, affording great water power. The Erie canal has a feeder which crosses the river in a fine aqueduct, 214 feet long and 16 feet wide, with walls 14 feet high, upheld by one arch of 70 feet span, and two others of 50 feet each. The canal passes into the brow of a mountain here which reached to the border of the river and embankment. In widening the canal more ample room is obtained by occupying a part of the river between an island and the south bank. [No population is here given but one of over 2,500 is indicated.]

Herkimer, p. o., v., capital Herkimer co., N. Y. The village is situated on the north side of the Mohawk river. It contains a brick court house, a stone jail and a fireproof clerk's office, 1 academy, 1 bank, 1 German Reformed and 1 Methodist church, 10 stores, 1 large flouring mill, 1 printing office, 120 dwellings and about 800 inhabitants.

[In 1840, the Herkimer-Mohawk-Ilion-Frankfort community had a population of about 2,400, with Herkimer the leading town and Frankfort the leading industrial community.]

Mohawk, p. o., v., German Flats township, Herkimer co., N. Y. Situated on the south side of the Mohawk river, on the Erie canal and contains a church, a bank, 10 stores, 120 dwellings and about 700 inhabitants.

Ilion, Herkimer co., N. Y. [is not described in Haskell and Smith's Gazetteer of 1840. It was then known as Remington Corners, with a population of 300 or more. It did not bear the name of Ilion until 1843, when a post office was established here.]

Frankfort, p. o., v., Frankfort township, Herkimer County, N. Y. The surface is hilly and broken on the south. In the north are fertile flats on the Mohawk. The village is on the south of the Mohawk, on the Erie canal and contains 1 Dutch Reformed and 1 Baptist church, 8 stores, 1 woolen factory, 1 grist mill, 1 saw mill, 1 distillery, 1 tannery, 100 dwellings and about 500 inhabitants. [From the foregoing we learn that Frankfort in 1840 was the chief industrial village of the Herkimer-Mohawk-Ilion-Frankfort community, with a population of about 2,400.]

Utica, p. o., city, semi-capitol, Oneida Co., N. Y., is on the south side of the Mohawk river in 43 deg. 10 min. north latitude, 74 deg. 13 min. west longitude, 92 miles west by north Albany; 140 m. Rochester, 202 m. Buffalo, 76 mi. Oswego. Pop. 1820, 2,972; 1830, 8,323; 1840, 12,782. The city stands on a beautifully inclined plane rising south from the Mohawk, the highest parts of which present fine prospects. The buildings, most of which are of brick, are good and many of them splendid. The streets are neat and spacious, many of them 100 ft. wide. It has 18 churches — 3 Presbyterians, 1 Dutch Reformed, 2 Episcopal, 4 Baptist, 3 Methodist, 2 Roman Catholic, 1 Universalist, 1 African, 1 Friends meeting house. There is also an Exchange building. Besides numerous charitable institutions, there are in the city the County Medical Society, 2 incorporated academies, one for males and one for females, a museum, the Utica Library, the Mechanic's Association which supports popular lectures, and the Apprentices Library. There are 4 banks with an aggregate capital of $900,000, besides a bank for savings and an insurance company with a capital of $200,000 and a mutual insurance company.

The State Lunatic Asylum is located here, about a mile west of the center of the city. The Erie canal, here widened to 70 ft. and 7 feet deep, passes through the central part of the city and is crossed by a number of elevated and elegant bridges. The Chenango canal connects this place with Binghamton in Broome county. The Great Western railroad from Albany passes through it. There are also fine roads in various directions, north and south, on which numerous stages run. Utica is in the midst of a rich and highly cultivated country and, as might be expected, possesses an extensive trade. A culvert has been completed within the city from the canal to the river at an expense of $100,000. Utica was incorporated as a village in 1798 and as a city in 1832. There were, in 1840, in the city, 2 commercial and 3 commission houses in foreign trade, capital $58,000; 188 retail stores, capital $1,678,595; 3 lumber yards, capital $41,000; 5 furnaces, capital $59,000; value of machinery manufactured $166,555; 6 tanneries, capital $103,000; 2 breweries, 1 flouring mill, 2 grist mills, 2 saw mills, 1 paper factory, 6 printing offices, 6 weekly newspapers, 61 brick and stone and 30 wooden [the principal] houses, cost $253,000. Capital in manufacture, $496,130, 10 academies, 670 students, 36 schools, 981 scholars.

Whitesboro [here called Whitestown]. Whitestown, postoffice, village, township, semi-capital of Oneida county, N. Y., 96 m. west northwest Albany. The surface is undulating, soil calcareous loam and fertile. Drained by Oriskany and Sadaquada creeks, flowing into Mohawk river, which bounds it on the northeast. Whitesborough village, situated on the south side of the Mohawk river, contains a court house, jail, 4 churches — 1 Presbyterian, 1 Congregational, 1 Baptist and 1 Methodist — 8 stores, 1 large cotton factory, 3,000 spindles; 1 large flouring mill, an academy, 300 dwellings and about 1,800 inhabitants. It is chiefly on one street, over one mile long, shaded with trees with graveled sidewalks. It contains the Oneida Institute, a manual labor institution which has a president and several professors; incorporated in 1829. It has attached to it a farm of 114 acres and has several convenient buildings.

Rome, postoffice, village, township and semi-capitol of Oneida county, N. Y. 107 m. northwest Albany, 391 m. from Washington. The surface is chiefly level or gently undulating; soil, a fertile clay and sandy loam. Drained by the Mohawk river on which is excellent land and Wood creek, which flows into Oneida lake. These two streams were connected by a small canal, before the construction of the Erie canal, which was bought out when the latter was made. The village is on the Mohawk river and the Erie canal and contains 6 churches, 1 bank, 1 female seminary, a United States arsenal with a magazine and workshops, 25 stores, 1 cotton factory, 1 flouring mill, 1 saw mill, 1 brewery, 1 blast furnace, 350 dwellings and about 2,500 inhabitants. The Black River canal here unites with the Erie and the Syracuse and Utica railroad passes through the village.

Other Oneida County towns, not directly along the Mohawk River, are given in Haskell & Smith's 1840 Gazetteer as follows:

Camden, p. o., t., Oneida co., N. Y., 128 N. W. Albany, 397 W. The surface is uneven, and the soil a fertile sandy loam. Drained by Fish cr. and its tributaries. The v. is on the w. branch of Fish cr. Incorporated in 1834. It has a town house, 3 churches, 100 dwellings, and about 700 inhabitants. There are in the township 5 stores, cap. $46,500; 1 furnace, 1 fulling m., 1 woollen fac., 5 tanneries, 6 grist m., 13 saw m., 1 oil m. Cap. in manufac. $33,750. 1 acad., 60 students, 14 sch., 720 scholars. Pop. 2,331.

Boonville, p. o., t., Oneida co., N. Y., 28 n. Utica, 114 w. n. w. Albany, 419 W. The surface is hilly, and the soil clay loam on lime. Drained by Black r. and the head waters of the Mohawk. The v. is situated on the Black river canal, 31 n. Utica. Mill cr., which enters into Black r., affords water power. It has 2 churches, 5 stores, 1 grist m., 1 saw m., 1 tannery, 1 clothier's works, 80 dwellings, and about 600 inhabitants. Pop. of the t. 5,516.

Clinton, post office, village, Kirkland township, Oneida co., N. Y., 99 W. N. W. Albany, 9 S. W. Utica, 380 W. It is pleasantly situated on both sides of Oriskany creek. It has 4 churches, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist, and 1 Universalist, 8 stores, several schools of a high order, 100 dwellings, and about 800 inhabitants. It has several important manufacturing establishments. Hamilton College, a respectable institution, is located here. The buildings, 4 in number, constructed of stone, occupy a commanding eminence, 1 m. W. of the v., and are surrounded by grounds containing 41 acres. This institution was founded in 1812, has a president and 6 professors, or other instructors, 464 alumni, of whom 59 have been ministers of the gospel, 94 students and 9,000 vols. in its libraries. The commencement is on the 4th Wednesday in August.

Vernon, post office, village and township, Oneida co., N. Y., 16 W. Utica, 108 W. N. W. Albany, 371 W. The surface is undulating; soil, sandy loam and fertile clay. Drained by Oneida and Skenandoa creeks. The village was incorporated in 1827, and contains 3 churches — 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist, and 1 Unitarian — an academy, 4 stores, 1 grist m., 1 saw m., 1 tannery, 100 dwellings, and about 700 inhabitants. In the vicinity, on Skenandoa cr., is a large glass fac. There are, in the township, 13 stores, cap. $66,500; 3 fulling m., 3 woolen fac., 2 tanneries, 1 distillery, 2 glass houses, 1 printing office, 1 weekly newspaper, 4 grist m., 13 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $93,300. 2 acad., 17 schools. Pop. 3,043.

Oneida Castle, post office, village, Vernon t., Oneida co., N. Y., 113 w. n. w. Albany, 366 W. Situated on both sides of Oneida cr. Incorporated in 1841. It contains 1 Presbyterian and 1 Baptist church, 2 stores, about 60 dwellings, and 400 inhabitants.

Bridgewater, post office, village and township, Oneida co., N. Y., 81 w. by n. Albany, 15 s. Utica, 370 W. The surface is uneven, and the soil is good for grazing. Drained by Unadilla river, which rises here. The village contains 50 dwellings and 350 inhabitants. There are in the township 3 stores, cap. $11,000; 1 tannery, 1 grist m., 5 saw m. Cap. in manufactures $6,350. 10 sch., 437 scholars. Pop. 1,418.

Waterville, post office, village, Sangerfield township, Oneida co., N. Y., 90 W. N. W. Albany, 372 W. Situated on a branch of Oriskany cr., and contains 1 Presbyterian, and 1 Baptist church, an academy and female seminary, a bank, 10 stores, 1 woolen fac., 1 starch fac., 3 grist m., 2 saw m., 2 furnaces, and a machine shop, where carriage springs are made, 1 organ fac., 3 distilleries, 120 dwellings, and about 1,000 inhabitants.

The Schoharie County villages of Schoharie, Middleburg and Cobleskill are described as follows:

Schoharie, post office, township, capital of Schoharie co., N. Y., 32 W. Albany, 383 W. The surface is uneven, with fertile flats on the streams. Watered by Schoharie and Fox creeks. The village contains a court house, jail, county clerk's office, 1 Lutheran church, an academy, 4 stores, various mechanic shops, 1 grist m., 2 or 3 saw m., 60 dwellings and about 450 inhabitants. There are in the township 17 stores, cap. $52,300; 8 fulling m., 4 tanneries, 1 paper fac., 2 printing offices, 1 weekly newspaper, 7 grist m., 32 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $35,700. 2 acad. 124 students, 25 sch., 1,345 scholars. Pop. 5,534.

Middleburg, post office, township, Schoharie co., N. Y., 37 W. Albany, 378 W. The surface is hilly; soil, in the valleys, calcareous loam and alluvion, and very fertile. A pond, or marsh, called the Vly, discharges to the N. a mill stream, which flows into Schoharie kill. From the S. E. flows a branch of Catskill cr. The village is situated on the E. side of Schoharie creek, and contains 1 Dutch Reformed and 1 Lutheran church, 5 stores, 1 grist m., 2 saw m., 2 tanneries, 1 furnace, 1 clothier's works, 50 dwellings, and about 300 inhabitants. There are in the township 11 stores, cap. $16,300; 4 fulling m., 4 tanneries, 6 grist m., 28 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $14,600. 20 sch., 888 scholars. Pop. 3,843.

Cobleskill, post office, township, Schoharie co., N. Y., 42 W. Albany, 386 W. The surface is hilly, with fertile valleys. Drained by Cobleskill cr. Here is a mill stream issuing from a natural well, which has never been effectually sounded. This stream soon enters a subterranean passage, and reappears after a distance of 7 miles. The village contains 1 church, 3 stores, 1 saw m., and 20 dwellings. The township has 13 stores, cap. $48,100; 3 fulling m., 3 tanneries, 1 brewery, 5 grist m., 21 saw m. Cap. in manufac. $6,400. 19 sch., 987 scholars. Pop. 3,583.

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