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A History of the Schenectady Patent in the Dutch and English Times
11: Old French War, 1744-1748

Prof. Jonathan Pearson

Go back to: Indian Wars on the Border | ahead to: Fortifications and Garrisons

[This information is from pp. 290-303 of A History of the Schenectady Patent in the Dutch and English Times; being contributions toward a history of the lower Mohawk Valley by Jonathan Pearson, A. M. and others, edited by J. W. MacMurray, A. M., U. S. A. (Albany, NY: J. Munsell's Sons, Printers, 1883). It is in the Schenectady Collection of the Schenectady County Public Library at Schdy R 974.744 P36, and copies are also available for borrowing.]

[Copies of this book are available from the Schenectady County Historical Society.]

[The original version uses assorted typographical symbols to represent footnotes. To improve legibility, the online version uses the form (page number - note number.)]

[Map: Region about Albany and Schenectady from Sauthier's Map, 1779. Re-drawn by F. H. Janes. Photo. Lith. by A. Wild, Albany, N. Y., for Major MacMurray, U. S. A.]

The Old French War, so called to distinguish it from that of 1753, was declared by Louis XV. on March 15, 1744, and accepted by England, March 29th. It was two months after before the news reached New England although known a month earlier by the French of Canada. To secure the friendship and active aid of the Six Nations, the Governor of New York called a council of the chiefs of the confederacy, who met at Albany, June 18, 1744 and "renewed, strengthened and brightened the covenant chain that had so long tied them and the subjects of his majesty the great king their father, in mutual ties of friendship."

Although inclining to peace they promised in the strongest terms to stand by their friends if attacked. During this war as in the others preceding it, the French and their allies were the most actively aggressive, sending out almost daily small parties of their Indians to annoy and distress the frontier settlements and bring back such plunder and captives as they could find. The points of attack in this Province were settlements along the Mohawk and Hudson, particularly Saratoga, Schenectady and Albany and the outlying places.

No family was safe unless protected by blockhouse or palisade; no man was exempt from military duty save by age or infirmity. In Schenectady and Albany each, able bodied men kept watch and ward every third or fourth night. French and English reports alike give sad accounts of shocking barbarities practiced on both sides by skulking parties of savages and white men. The following examples, among many others taken from French reports, clearly show the cruelties practiced by these two Christian nations, who rewarded their savage allies in proportion to the number of scalps returned. (290-1)

"April 20, 1746, a party of fourteen Iroquois belonging to the Sault St. Louis commanded by Ontassago, the son of the grand chief of that village who sojourned at Fort St. Frederic [Crown Point] made several scouts to Sarasteau [Saratoga]."

"April 26, a party of thirty-five Iroquois, belonging to the Sault set out. They have been in the neighborhood of Orange [Albany] and have made prisoners and taken some scalps."

"April 27, 1746, a party of six Iroquois of the Sault St. Louis struck a blow in the neighborhood of 0range [Albany]."

"May 10, 1746, Gatienoude an Iroquois of the Five Nations who has been settled at the Lake [Champlain] for two or three years, left with five Indians of that village, and Sieur St. Blein to strike a blowe in the neighborhood of Orange. This small party brought in one prisoner, Gatienoude the leader of the party is killed and scalped by the English on the field of battle."

"May 24, 1746, a party (291-1) of eight Abenakis of Missiskony has been fitted out, who have in the directions of Corlard [Schenectady] and have returned with some prisoners and scalps."

"May 27, 1746, equipped a party of eight Iroquois of Sault St. Louis, which struck a blow near Orange and brought back six scalps."

"A party of Abenekis of Missiskony struck a blow near Orange [Albany] and Corlard [Schenectady] and brought some prisoners and scalps."

"June 2, 1746, equipped a party of twenty-five warriors of the Sault and three Flatheads who joined the former in an expedition to the neighborhood of Orange and who returned with some scalps."

"June 3, 1746, equipped a party of eighteen Nepissings who struck a blow at Orange & Corlard [Schenectady]."

"June 17, 1746, equipped a party of ten Abenekis who went to make an attack at the river Kakecoute and were defeated near a fort; (291-2) their chief Cadenaret, a famous warrior, has been killed; — the remainder returned with some scalps and left others which they were not able to bring away, the dead having remained too near the fort."

"June 19, 1746, equipped a party of twenty-five Indians of the Sault St. Louis, who struck a blow near Orange [Albany].

One or two of the Indians were wounded: — they brought away some scalps."

"June 20, 1746, equipped a party of nineteen Iroquois of the Sault St. Louis, who went to Orange to strike a blow."

"June 21, 1746, equipped a party of twenty-seven Iroquois of the same village to go to Orange. Sieur Parqueville an officer and Sieur Blein, a cadet, have been of this party, which has brought in a prisoner that was in the scout to Sarasteau [Saratoga] and some scalps."

Such is an example of the energetic manner the French and their savages made war upon the almost undefended frontier settlers who were taken by surprise and almost wholly unprepared for this war.

The earliest and most severe attacks were upon the New England Provinces, which in 1745, raised an expedition and took the strongly fortified town of Louisburgh. The greatest annoyance to New York was experienced from the frequent parties sent out from Fort St. Frederick [Crown Point] which the French held strongly fortified in 1731.

"Nov. 16, 1745, a large body of three hundred French & two hundred Indians came upon the Dutch settlement at Saratoga, (292-1) murdering the inhabitants without any opposition. The enemy were commanded by one M. Marin, accompanied by a mischeivous priest, Francis Piequet.

"They ravaged a large extent of country, burning all the houses, several saw mills with much sawed lumber and a block house which belonged to John Henry Lydius; (292-2) also all the cattle. Thirty persons were killed and scalped and above sixty taken prisoners.

"All this was effected without so much as a wound to any of the French. A large number of negroes were among the captives. In the course of the winter the captives were sent to the prison in Quebec; where many of them died of sickness.

"The news of this attack reached Albany three days after it happened, and Deerfield nine days after, namely on the 25th." (292-3)

Among the prisoners were Jonathan Hagadorn (292-4) taken near Fort Ann while on a scout. He died on the 3d January, following, a prisoner at Quebec, after a long and painful illness, as also Capt. John Fort (292-5) March 21, taken at the same time and place. He died of consumption.

"In the spring of 1746, Edward Cloutman and Robert Dunbar (293-1), broke prison at Quebec 23 Oct., 1746, and escaped; Dunbar was taken not long before as he was scouting on the 'Carrying Place' and his loss was greatly lamented as he had performed the most important service as a ranger ever since the war commenced. He was a New York man probably and the 'Carrying Place' was that between the Hudson river and Wood creek, doubtless." (293-2)

"May 7th, 1746, One Christian Tedder or Tether [Vedder] is taken at Schenectady. He died at Quebec after a year and eight days captivity, namely May 15, 1747." (293-3)

May 7, 1746, ……… "The inhabitants along the Mohawks river have left their settlements so that we are now reduced to great distress. As we wrote in our last If a very considerable Force be not Immediately sent to our assistance we must remove and look out for New Settlements. We have neither Men, Money nor Warlike Stores. ………" (293-4)

"P. S. Just now is news come that a house and Barn are burnt at Canastagione [Niskayuna], and 4 men carried off or killed."

"May 8th, seven in the morning." (293-5)

"May 10, 1746, six persons are killed in sight of the city of Albany, just across the river, two of whom were negroes. Pursuit was immediately made but before we could cross the river and pursue on the other side the enemy got into the woods & escaped."

"May 13, 1746, as three men belonging to the garrison of Saraghtoga were fishing near the Fort, they were surprised by Indians, who killed a son of William Norwood, took another, a German who used to live with Col. John Schuyler while a third effected his escape to the Fort. Another person narrowly escaped being taken in his own garden within a fourth of a mile of the city of Albany. So daring have the enemy become that they are daily seen about the settlements, and yet none of them are either killed or taken."

"About the same time two negroes were taken at Stone Arabia, since Palatine, on the Mohawk river, a German settlement commenced in 1721." (294-1)

"About the same time, Simon Groot and two of his brothers are butchered three miles from the village of Schenectady. The enemy burnt their buildings, killed their cattle and destroyed their other effects. They were discovered while doing this mischeif by the settlers on the opposite side of the river, who knew some of the Indians, particularly Tom Wileman who had lately removed from the Mohawk country to Albany."

It was doubtless to this raid that Smith refers in his history of New York, he says:

"One hundred and six men were detached from Schenectady. The track of the Indians was discovered by the fires they had made, and they were pursued above Schenectady. At the house of one Simon Groot they had murdered & scalped a boy, taken one man prisoner, plundered & set fire to the house & shot a man in attempting to escape by swimming over the river."

During this year Abraham Glen asked permission to raise a company of 100 volunteers for the defence of the frontiers, which the Governor and Council granted. (294-2)

"May, 1746, at Norman's creek about eighteen miles to the westward of Albany as fourteen men, all armed went with a waggon to bring corn from a deserted farm to a house where several families had removed for safety, they were met by a party of Indians, who killed and took all the party but two who made their escape to Albany. One of these was wounded in the shoulder. (294-3)

"Near the end of this month [of August, 1746], it was reported that three Mohawks had killed the officer of the French garrison at Crown Point and another person as they were walking in the garden attached to the Fort. These they scalped and brought their scalps to Schenectade intending to present them to the Governor. Sixteen other Indians of the same tribe went towards Montreal with a design to seize some of the French, with a view to bring them to Albany but what success they met with is not reported."

"About the middle of August, 1746, six men are killed at Scooduck or Schodac, eight miles below Albany. Another is missing supposed to be taken captive. Perhaps at the same time or it may be some days earlier, two men are wounded at the same place, one in the arm who is likely to do well, the other in the neck which 'tis thought will prove mortal."

"The Indians killed four men and took four others prisoners at Saratoga. Capt. Schuyler in command of the militia post there went out to their assistance, but came near being cut off and with difficulty retreated to the Fort. Had the enemy effected this it was thought they would have taken the Fort."

"To which affair the following refers is not very clear. 'A party of Abenekis headed by Ensign Monsigno who had been detached from Sieur Piquads [De Vaudreuil's] party after his attack on Fort Massachusetts proceeded towards Fort Sarasteau [Saratoga]. They met seventeen soldiers belonging to the garrison, took four of them and scalped four others. The remainder threw themselves precipitately into the Fort pursued by our people who killed some of them.'" (295-1)

"Oct. 12, 1746, at Saratoga sixteen men are killed and taken about a mile from the Fort. They belonged to Langdon's and Hart's companies. The men attacked behaved with great cowardice except Lieut. Johnston and the Ensign of Hart's company. The latter having killed two Indians, returned to Albany with the gun of one of them. The party attacked was guarding some waggons."

"On the 3d Dec., 1746, news reached Boston that the Mohawk Indians had made a successful incursion into Canada. One party struck a blow at Caterougui Lake [Lake Ontario] killed eight persons and brought away six scalps and took seven or eight Frenchmen prisoners, all of which prisoners and scalps they brought to Albany. Another party under the chief Hendrick went to Montreal and after a conference with the governor of Canada went to Isle La Motte in Lake Champlain where they fell upon some Frenchmen getting out ship timber, killed & scalped one and took another prisoner. The Mohawks took their canoes and with their prisoners & scalps procccded to Albany." (295-2)

"April 3, 1747, a company of Mohawks were sent out from the Mohawk Castle towards Crown Point, by Col. Johnson in pursuance of orders from Governor Clinton. The party was led by Lt. Walter Butler, Jr." (295-3)

They went towards Crown Point and dividing into two parties, one of thirteen Indians had a smart skirmish with twenty-seven Frenchmen and three Indians, several of whom they killed and wounded, bringing away six ecalps. (295-4) This expedition is thus noticed in the French accounts: "We learn (May 7) by a carrier just arrived from Montreal that in the last days of April a party of Mohawks and English had fallen on twenty-one French scouts near Fort St. Frederic [Crown Point] and killed and scalped five of them. Sieur Laplante an officer had been very badly treated on that occasion having received seven gunshot wounds. This unfortunate occurrence was the result of too much confidence on the part of the French who have been surprised." (296-1)

"April 7, 1747, the enemy appeared in large force at Saratoga, where they ambushed a party killing eight and wounding several others. Capt. Livingston despatched Capt. Bradt with a company who came up on the opposite side of the river and soon after the enemy drew off leaving some plunder and one wounded Frenchman behind them." (296-2)

April 10, 1747, "The same party of the enemy next appeared at Kinderhook, where they surprised a party of eleven men at work, killed two of them and made the other nine captives. They then burnt the house & barn of Mr. John Van Alstyne and escaped unmolested."

April, 1747. "A party of ten French Indians captured a man. Two others heard the man halloo for help and ran to his assistance and fired upon his captors killing one and wounding another, at which the rest fled leaving their dead companion behind them."

June 1, 1747. "About this date the Indian Chief Kintigo returns to the Lower Mohawk Castle, whence he went against the French with six men. They brought in seven prisoners and three scalps taken at St. Pierre a little below Montreal."

June 15, 1747. "News came to Boston that the fort at Saraghtoga had been attacked by two thousand French and Indians who killed sixty of the garrison and the attack was still in progress. The place was relieved soon after by the arrival of Col. Schuyler." (296-3)

June 26, 1747, "The well known chief Hendrick returned from a march into the enemies country. He had some thirty Indians under him. They were surprised on an island in the St. Lawrence above Montreal by the enemies Indians in which four of the white men and nine of the Indians are killed by the first fire. The names of the whites were Cornelis Van Slyck [of Schenectady], Johannes Pootman (296-4) ———— Le Roy and ———— Gott. Hendrick and the rest succeeded in escaping."

July, 1747. "It was reported that a woman & six children were carried off from Burnetfield On the Mohawk river, the only out settlement undisturbed hitherto in that region. (296-5)

[Map of the Northern Department of North America]

The distress occasioned by this war is clearly set forth by the following petition of the inhabitants of Albany for relief made to the Provincial assembly July 27, 1747.

The sufferings of Schenenectady were even greater because more exposed, more impoverished and less secure.

… "That the inhabitants of the corporation of the city of Albany are in great misery and distress by reason of the present war with France and with the Indians in their alliance: — That the Inhabitants of the said city ever since the Commencement of the war by their frequent watching have been very much taken off from themselves and families: — that every man of our corporation have been obliged to attend in person or pay a hired man in their stead upon Watch & ward every third or fourth night during the whole time excepting a small interval of time in the spring the duty was demanded only every fourth night, but now and for sometime past for the safety of this frontier and the poor inhabitants we are obliged again to come upon a fourth night: — that our Corporation by reason of the present war are indebted… for the supplying of fire wood and candles for the night watches & for powder & ball for the poorest of the inhabitants: … besides what the inhabitants have done by a voluntary taxing themselves for providing & setting up new Stockadoes where the old ones were gone to decay."

Whilst the people of Schenectady were striving to protect their borders from the attack of the enemy, they were called on to send men to Oswego.

The following answer of Col. Jacob Glen discloses a sad state of morals at that important fortress.

"Col. Schuyler

"It is impossible to procure men for going to Oswego, especially when John Vischer remains there. John Baptist [Van Eps, the interpreter], says if a hundred pounds was offered him over and above his Wages [he] would not remain a year under his command. (297-1) ……

Jacob Glen."

"Schenectady,
Sept. ye 8, 1747."

Glen in a previous letter says the officers at Oswego are drunkards.

During the year 1747, Capt. Tiebout's company of foot was stationed at Schenectady. (297-2)

The Beukendaal Massacre

As the war drew to a close, in 1748, Schenectady met with the severest loss it had suffered at any one time since the year 1690. This is generally called the Poopendal (298-1) massacre. It was however in no sense a massacre like that of 1690, except perhaps in the killing of the first victim, but a stand up and hand to hand fight in Indian fashion, in which the whites were the attacking party, and on that account suffered more severely than the savages.

About 20 of the former were killed and some 13 or more made prisoners; of the losses of the latter we have no sufficient accounts.

Beyond tradition the accounts of this skirmish are meagre and uncircumstantial.

A brief letter to Col. William Johnson written by Albert Van Slyck, July 21, 1748, — three days after the affair, is the only semi-official narrative we have by one who was in the fight.

"From the details preserved in this letter it appears that a party of men from Schenectady, the leader of whom was Daniel Toll, had been dispatched to some place in the vicinity to bring in a number of horses, which was surprised by a party of the enemy whose presence in the neighborhood was neither known nor suspected.

"The firing being heard by Adrian Van Slyck a brother of the writer of the account, who seems to have resided at a distance from the town, he sent a negro man to the latter place to give the alarm and obtain reinforcements. Four parties of Armed men successively repaired to the scene of Action, the first of which was composed of the 'New England lieutenant with some of his men and five or six young lads,' accompanied by Daniel Van Slyck, another brother. The second party was led by Ackes Van Slyck 'and some men,' — how many of either party is not stated.

"Adrian Van Slyck followed next at the head of a party of New York levies, but on reaching the scene of action, where Ackes with inferior numbers was holding the enemy at bay, the levies all fled, in the most cowardly manner.

"The fourth party was composed of Albert Van Slyck (the writer of the letter) Jacob Glen 'and several others' on the approach of whom the enemy drew off leaving Adrian among the dead.

"The letter adds, — It grieves me, I not being Commander, that when we went, Garret Van Antwerp would suffer no more to accompany the party." (298-2)

[Photo: The De Graaf House and Beukendaal]

The second account written by Giles F. Yates, Esq., and published in the Schenectady Democrat and Reflector, April 22, 1836, was gathered from tradition then floating about among the aged people of that day, with whom Mr. Yates had an extended acquaintance.

"In the beginning of the month of July, 1748, Mr. [Daniel Toll] and his favorite servant Ryckert, went in search of some stray horses at Beukendal, a locality about three miles from this city. They soon heard as they supposed the trampling of horses; but on a nearer approach, the sound they mistook for that made by horses hoofs on the clayey ground, proceeded from the quaits with which some Indians were playing.

"Mr. Toll discovered his danger too late and fell pierced by the bullets of the French savages, for such they were. Ryckert more fortunate took to his heels and fled. He reached Schenectady in safety and told the dreadful news of the death of his master, and the presence of the enemy.

"In less than an hour about sixty volunteers were on their march to Beukendal. The greater part of these were young men & such was their zeal that they would not wait until the proper authorities had called out the Militia. * * *

"Without discipline or experience and even without a leader they hastened to the Indian Camp.

"Those in advance of the main body, before they reached the enemy were attracted by a singular sight. They saw a man resembling Mr. Toll sitting near a fence in an adjoining field and a crow flying up and down before him.

"On coming nearer they discovered it to be the corpse of Mr. Toll with a crow attached to it by a string.

"This proved to be a stratagem of the Indians to decoy their adversaries. The Schenectadians fell alas! too easily into the snare laid for them and were in a few moments surrounded by the Indians who had been lying in ambush. Thus taken by surprise they lost many of their number, and some were taken prisoners before they could make good their retreat.

"They however succeeded in reaching the house of Mr. De Graaf (299-1) in the neighborhood which had been for some time deserted. But while retreating they continued to fire upon their enemy. On reaching Mr. De Graaf's house they entered, bolted the doors and ascended to the second floor. Here they tore off all the boards near the eaves and thro the opening thus made fired with success at the savages and succeeded in keeping them at bay. In the meantime Dirck Van Vorst, who had been left in the charge of two young Indians effected his escape.

"The two youngsters were anxious to see the fight and secured their prisoner by tying him to a tree and left him alone. He succeeded in getting his knife from his pocket and cutting the cord with which he was bound. On the approach of the Schenectady militia under Col. Jacob Glen the party in Mr. De Graaf's house were relieved from their perilous situation and the enemy took up their line of march for Canada.

"On this occasion there were thirty-two citizens killed [?]: — of these we are able to give the names of Jacob Glen (cousin of Col. Glen), Peter Vrooman, John Darling, Adam Conde, ———— Van Antwerpen, Cornelius Vielè, Nicholaas De Graaf and Adrian Van Slyck: — wounded, Ryer Wemp, ———— Robinson and ———— Wilson: — prisoners, Abraham De Graaf (300-1) and his son William, John Phelps, Harmon Veeder and Lewis Groot.

"The bodies of De Graaf and Glen were found lying in a close contact with their savage antagonists with whom they had wrestled in deadly strife.

"The corpses were brought to Schenectady the evening of the massacre and deposited in the large barn of Abraham Mabee, being the identical one now standing on the premises of Mrs. Benjamin, in Church street. The relatives of the deceased repaired thither to claim their departed kindred and remove them for interment."

The third narrative may be found in Drake's "Particular History" and seems to have been gleaned from various sources. It is particularly valuable as giving more names of the killed and missing than any other account.

"July 18, 1748. About three miles from Schenectady, Daniel Toll, Dirck Van Vorst and a negro went to a place called Poependal to catch their horses; but not finding the horses as they expected they went into the adjacent woods to a place called the Clay pit [Kley kuil]. They discovered Indians and attempted to escape from them, but were pursued by them and both Toll & Van Vorst where shot down, but the negro escaped. Van Vorst, though wounded was not killed but taken prisoner. The firing was heard at Maalwyck about two miles distant and the people there knowing that Toll & Van Vorst had gone for their horses suspected the occasion of the firing. This was about ten o'clock in the morning and a messenger was at once dispatched to the town where the alarm was sounded about twelve. Some of the inhabitants with a company of new levies posted there under Lieut. Darling of Connecticut in all seventy men marched out toward Poependal cautiously searching for the enemy, as far as the lands of Simon Groot, but made no discovery of the enemy. At this point the negro before mentioned came to the party and told them where the body of his master was.

The negro was furnished with a horse and they (about forty in number) were piloted to the spot where his master lay dead; and near Poependal at Abraham De Graaf's house. They immediately entered the woods with the negro where they at once discovered the enemy in great numbers upon whom they discharged a volley with a shout. The enemy shouted in return accompanying it with a volley also. This was the commencement of a most desperate fight. All but two or three of the English stood to it manfully, although they were hemmed in on every side by the great numbers of the enemy, and fought over a space of about two acres; yet the battle ground was left in possession of the settlers. In this hand to hand encounter twelve of the inhabitants of Schenectady were killed outright, five were taken prisoners and seven of Lieut. Darlings men including himself were killed and six of them missing supposed to be taken prisoners. The news of this battle reached Albany in the evening of the same day and by midnight Lieut. Chew with one hundred English and two hundred friendly Indians were on the march for the scene of action, but to no other purpose than as showing their willingness to meet an emergency of this kind. The names of the people killed so far as ascertained were Daniel Toll, Frans Van der Bogart Jr., Jacob Glen Jr., Daniel Van Antwerpen, J. P. Van Antwerpen, Cornelis Vielen Jr., Adrian Van Slyck, Peter Vrooman, Klaas A. De Graaf, Adam Condè, John A. Bradt & John Marinus.

"There were missing, Isaac Truax, Ryer Wemp, Johannes Seyer Vrooman, Albert John Vedder & Frank Conner all belonging to Schenectady. Of the soldiers seven were killed & six missing." (301-1)

From these accounts it is certain that the presence of the Indians was not suspected until the first shot; — that Capt. Daniel Toll was the first victim; — that the alarm was given by his negro Ryckert — that a company of Connecticut levies under Lieut. John Darling accompanied and followed by squads of the inhabitants marched to the scene, and that after a hot engagement the Indians retreated leaving twenty of the whites dead and taking away thirteen or fourteen prisoners besides the wounded.

Considering the number of the whites engaged, their loss was very severe, amounting probably to one-third of their force.

The following is the fullest list of killed and missing that can now be given:

Killed

John A. Bradt, Johannes Marinus, Peter Vrooman, Daniel Van Antwerpen, Cornelis Vielè, Jr., Nicolaas De Graaf (302-1), Adrian Van Slyck, Jacob Glen, Jr., Adam Condè, J. P. Van Antwerpen, Frans Van der Bogart, Capt. Daniel Toll. (302-2)

Lt. John Darling, (302-3) and seven of his soldiers, in all twenty men.

Wounded

Ryer Wemp, ———— Robinson, Dirk Van Vorst, ———— Wilson.

And probably many others.

Missing — Prisoners

John Phelps, Lewis Groot, Johannes Seyer Vrooman, Frank Connor, Harman Veeder, Isaac Truax, Albert John Vedder.

And six soldiers, in all thirteen men.

After the close of hostilities Governor Clinton sent Lieut. Stoddert to Montreal to arrange for an exchange of prisoners. With Capt. Anthony Van Schaick he went into the Indian country to recover the captives, but with indifferent success. Among those who returned with Lieut. Stoddert were Capt. Anthony Van Schaick, John Vrooman, Peter Vasborough [Vosburgh], Albert Vedder and Francis Connor. Efforts were made to induce others to return but without success; of these were Rachel Quackenbos, Simon Fort and Philip Phillipsen. Rachel Quackenbos abjured the English religion and Lieut. Stoddert could not persuade her to return. Fort and Phillipse also desired to remain with the Iroquois; the former belonged by adoption to a sister of a chief named Agonareche. She refused to give him up at any price. Capt. Van Schaick offered six hundred livres for Fort without succeeding in obtaining him. On the contrary, so determined was his squaw owner to retain him, that she said she would obey the French commandant and deliver him up, but that she and her husband would follow him, and he should not reach home alive. Lieut. Stoddert left Canada on the 28th June, 1750, with twenty-four prisoners. (303-1)

Notes

(290-1) These extracts are taken mainly from Drake's Particular History of this war. [i.e., Samuel Gardner Drake, A Particular History of the Five Years French and Indian War in New England and Parts Adjacent ]

(291-1) It was probably in this raid that John Groot of Schenectady was captured. He died in Quebec Nov. 20, 1746.

(291-2) Probably the English Fort at Schaghticoke on the Hoosac river.

(292-1) Schuylerville and vicinity.

(292-2) Son of Dominic Lydius of Albany.

(292-3) Col. Doc., X, 38, and 761; VI, 289.

(292-4) He was a son of Hendrick Hagadorn of the Aal plaats, and was baptized Sept. 17, 1721, and married Lea Hagen Oct. 30, 1742.

(292-5) Son of Johannes Fort of Niskayuna. He died at Quebec Dec. 7, 1746.

Martha Quackenbos, a girl taken at Saratoga, Nov. 17, 1745, after a long and tedious sickness died Dec. 7, 1746. She was ten years of age.

Abraham Fort, son of Capt. John Fort, taken Nov. 17, 1745, died at Quebec May 19, 1747. Also Jacob Quackenbos and Isaac his son; both taken at Saratoga, Nov. 17, 1745, died May 26, 1747.

"March, 1747, there came into prison at Quebec a Dutchman from Schenectady and a woman from Saratoga.

April 26, there came into the prison at Quebec three persons taken some time before at Saratoga.

June 11, we had an account from the French that they had taken a number of Indians and Dutch who had first done some mischief in Canada. There was about fifty in the whole scout, and they had taken about ten or twelve of them in this month." — Drake's Particular History.

(293-1) Son perhaps of John Dunbar of Schenectady, — if so he was born in Albany Nov. 20, 1709.

(293-2) Drake's Particular History.

(293-3) He was son of Corset Vedder of Schaghticoke, born Jan. 7, 1720, and married Hillegonda Van Vranken, Sept. 27, 1745, both then residing at Niskayuna.

(293-4) Extract from letter of Commissioner of Indian affairs at Albany to the Governor.

(293-5) Col. MSS., LXXV.

(294-1) Drake's Particular History.

(294-2) Smith's Hist. of N. Y. [i.e., William Smith Jr.'s The History of the Province of New-York.]

(294-3) Drake's Particular History.

(295-1) Drake's Particular History.

(295-2) Drake's Particular History.

(295-3) N. Y. Col. Doc., VI, 343-4.

(295-4) May 7, "I have paid 60 pounds for the 6 scalps brought from Crown Point." — Col. Doc., VI, 361.

(296-1) Drake's Particular History.

(296-2) Col. Doc., X, 112, 115.

(296-3) Drake's Particular History.

(296-4) Son of Cornelis Pootman [now Putman] of Schenectady, born March 18, 1720.

(296-5) Drake's Particular History.

(297-1) Col. MSS., LXXV, 158.

(297-2) Stone's Life of Sir Wm. Johnson, I, 268.

(298-1) A corruption of Beukendaal, i. e., Beechdale.

(298-2) Stone's Life of Johnson, I, 350.

(299-1) [The view of the scene of the fight at Beukendaal is from a photograph by the editor. The view is taken looking north along the Sacandaga road. The hollow to the right is Beuken-daal (or Beech Vale) in which at a distance the fight commenced. The whites were forced back and they took possession of the De Graaf house shown in picture and there defended themselves. It will be observed that this house is on high commanding ground which made it a strongly defensive position. Doubtless the whites' losses were mainly in the ambuscade along the creek further north. — M'M.]

(300-1) "Abrm. De Graaf and his son Wilhelmus were taken captives to Canada, Oct. 30, 1746. He died at Quebec and was buried there June 12." June 12, 1747, died at Quebec, Abraham De Grave [Graaf] of Schenectada taken Oct., 1746. — De Graaf Bible, 1747.

(301-1) Drake's Particular History, 169-70.

(302-1) "1748, July 13, Nicolaas De Graaf and twenty others, were murdered at Poopendal by the savage Indians." — De Graaf Bible.

(302-2) At the Poopendal massacre Capt. Daniel Toll was killed; he was standing by a tree when the fatal bullet struck him. His name was to be seen cut in the bark for many years after, but is now gone. — Claas Veeder, the Centennarian.

(302-3) Commander of the Connecticut levies.

It would seem that Capt. Stoddard commanded at Schenectady during a portion of the year 1748, but was doubtless absent on this occasion. — Stone's Life of Johnson, I, 365.

(303-1) Drake's Particular History, 178-9; Col. Doc., X, 209, 215.

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