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A History of the Schenectady Patent in the Dutch and English Times
9: Burning of Schenectady

Prof. Jonathan Pearson

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[This information is from pp. 244-270 of A History of the Schenectady Patent in the Dutch and English Times; being contributions toward a history of the lower Mohawk Valley by Jonathan Pearson, A. M. and others, edited by J. W. MacMurray, A. M., U. S. A. (Albany, NY: J. Munsell's Sons, Printers, 1883). It is in the Schenectady Collection of the Schenectady County Public Library at Schdy R 974.744 P36, and copies are also available for borrowing.]

[Copies of this book are available from the Schenectady County Historical Society.]

[The original version uses assorted typographical symbols to represent footnotes. To improve legibility, the online version uses the form (page number - note number.)]

The story of the massacre of 1690 has often been told. The essential facts are few and well established, both by the English and French accounts. The causes of this attack were first, the war between England and France occasioned by the English revolution of 1688, and secondly, the desire of the French in Canada to intimidate and detach the Iroquois from the English, by delivering a stunning blow and capturing both Albany and Schenectady. The destruction of these places would perhaps have decided the fate of the Province, for they then would have held the key to the navigation of the Hudson.

A march from Montreal to Schenectady — a distance of 200 miles, was one of extreme labor, requiring great pluck and endurance.

Between the St. Lawrence and the Mohawk rivers there was then an unbroken wilderness, without a single habitation.

In mid-winter the snow lay in the forest from three to six feet deep and could be traveled only on snow-shoes.

In addition to their heavy muskets and ammunition, the French were forced to carry provisions for the march of 22 days. Such were the conditions of an attack upon Schenectady, — only possible in winter without a flotilla of canoes, to pass the lakes.

The attacking party consisted of 114 Frenchmen, 80 savages from the Sault and 16 Algonquins, — in all 210 men.

The commander was Lemoine de Sainte Helene, assisted by Lieutenant D'Aillebout de Mantet. They started from Montreal on the 17th of January, and after suffering incredible hardships on the way, arrived in sight of the town about 11 o'clock at night on the 8th February. It was their intention to make the attack later, but the intense cold forced them to enter the town at once.

The village at this time lay mainly west of Ferry street, and was stockaded with palisades of pine logs ten feet high. It had at least two gates; (244-1) one at north end of Church street opening out to the highway [Front street], which led to the eastward to Niskayuna. Another at south end of Church at State, opening out to Mill lane and the Flats and the Albany road [State street].

The only dwellings outside the stockade were built on the northerly side of State street, extending as far south-east as Lange gang (Centre Street). It is said there were 80 good houses (245-1) in the village and a population of 400 souls, both numbers doubtless greatly exaggerated.

In the northerly angle of the village on the Binnè kil (near corner Washington and Front Streets) was a double stockaded fort (245-2) garrisoned by a detachment of 24 men of Capt. Jonathan Bull's Connecticut company under the command of Lieut. Talmadge.

Thus fortified and garrisoned the inhabitants should have repelled any ordinary attack, or at least held the enemy at bay until succor could reach them from Albany.

The destruction of the place was occasioned by divided counsels and a fatal apathy. The whole Province was then divided into two factions, — the Leislerians and the Anti-Leislerians — the short hairs and swallow-tails. Divided feelings and counsels ran so high in Albany and Schenectady as to counteract the sense of self preservation. Both parties were determined to rule, neither was strong enough to take the lead.

On the fatal night of Feb. 8th, the Noche triste of the ill fated village, the inhabitants went to rest with their gates open and no guard set. They trusted that the Indians who had been sent out as scouts to Lake George would forewarn them of the enemy's approach. The French marched upon the village from the north, crossed the river on the ice and divided their men into two companies with the intention of entering the town, one by the north or Church street gate, the other by the south or State street gate. The latter entrance being in a measure covered by the dwellings on that street could not be found; both companies therefore entered by the north gate and separating, spread themselves throughout the village, five or six before each house. At the signal agreed upon a simultaneous onslaught was made upon each dwelling and before the terror stricken inhabitants could seize their arms, the savages were upon them. Resistance was vain. Within two hours 60 of the people were slaughtered without distinction of age or sex. After selecting such booty as they could carry away, the French fired the houses and burnt all but five or six.

[Engraving: Destruction of Schenectady by French and Indians in 1690: original size (31K) | 9x enlarged (312K)] (246-1)

Capt. Sander Glen's family and relatives with their habitations and other property, on account of former kindness shown to captive Frenchmen, were spared by express order of the Governor of Canada. The utter helplessness of th inhabitants to offer resistance, is shown by the fact that only two of the enemy were killed and one severely wounded.

The plucky fight made by Adam Vrooman and his family comes down to us by tradition. His house stood on the west corner of Front and Church streets opposite the north gate.

By keeping up a brisk fire from his dwelling he kept the enemy at bay and extorted a promise from the French commander to apace his life.

After taking a few hours of much needed rest, the French began their retreat at 11 o'clock of the 9th, with 27 prisoners, men and boys, and fifty horses laden with plunder.

Nineteen of their men perished in the retreat and the remainder were only saved from starvation by killing the horses.

Of the many accounts of this transaction written at the time, the following are the most trustworthy.

The first is the French report, and may be found among the "Paris documents" Vol. IV in the secretary of State's office.

"An account of the burning of Schenectady by Mons. De Monsignat, comptroller General of the marine in Canada to Madam de Maintenon, the morganatic wife of Louis XIV.

"The orders received by M. Le Comte [De Frontenac] to commence hostilities against New England and New York, which had declared for the Prince of Orange, afforded him considerable pleasure and were very necessary for the country. He allowed no more time to elapse before carrying them into execution than was required to send off some dispatches to France, immediately after which, he determined to organise three different detachments, to attack those rebels at all points at the same moment, and to punish them at various places for having afforded protection to our enemies, the Mohawks.

"The first party was to rendezvous at Montreal, and proceed towards Orange; the second at Three Rivers, and to make a descent on New York, at some place between Boston and Orange; and the third was to depart from Quebec, and gain the seaboard between Boston and Pentagouet, verging towards Acadia. They all succeeded perfectly well, and I shall communicate to you the details. * * * *

"The detachment which formed at Montreal, may have been composed of about two hundred and ten men, namely: eighty savages from the Sault and from La Montagne; sixteen Algonquins; and the remainder Frenchmen — all under the command of the Sieur Le Moyne de Sainte Helene, and Lieutenant Daillebout de Mantet, both of whom Canadians.

"The Sieurs le Moyne d'Iberville and Repentigny de Montesson commanded under these.

"The best qualified Frenchmen were the Sieurs de Bonrepos and de La Brosse, Calvinist officers, the Sieur la Moyne de Blainville, Le Bert du Cherie and la Marque de Montigny who all served as volunteers.

"They took their departure from Montreal at the commencement of February. (?)

"After having marched for the course of five or six days, they called a council to determine the route they should follow, and the point they should attack.

"The Indians demanded of the French what was their intention. Messieurs de Sainte Helene and Mantet replied that they had left in the hope of attacking Orange, if possible, as it is the Capital of New York and a place of considerable importance, though they had no orders to that effect, but generally to act according as they should judge on the spot of their chances of success, without running too much risk. This appeared to the savages somewhat rash. They represented the difficulties and the weakness of the party for so bold an undertaking.

"There was even one among them, who, his mind filled with recollections of the disasters which he had witnessed last year, enquired of our Frenchmen, — "since when had they become so desperate?"

"In reply to their raillery, 'twas answered that it was our intention, now, to regain the honor of which our misfortunes had deprived us, and the sole means to accomplish that was to carry Orange, or to perish in so glorious an enterprise.

"As the Indians, who had an intimate acquaintance with the localities, and more experience than the French, could not be brought to agree with the latter, it was determined to postpone coming to a conclusion until the party should arrive at the spot where the two routes separate — the one leading to Orange and the other to Corlaer [Schenectady]. In the course of the journey which occupied eight days, the Frenchmen judged proper to diverge towards Corlaer, according to the advice of the Indians; and this road was taken without calling a council. Nine days more elapsed before they arrived, having experienced inconceivable difficulties, and having been obliged to march up to their knees in water, and to break the ice with their feet in order to find a solid footing.

"They arrived within two leagues of Corlaer about four o'clock in the evening, and were harangued by the great Mohawk chief of the Iroquois from the Sault. He urged on all to perform their duty, and to lose all recollections of their fatigue, in the hope of taking ample revenge for the injuries they had received from the Iroquois at the solicitation of the English, and of washing them out in the blood of the traitors.

"This savage was without contradiction the most considerable of his tribe, — an honest man, — as full of spirit, prudence and generosity as it is possible, and capable at the same time of the grandest undertakings. Shortly after, four squaws were discovered in a wigwam, who gave every information necessary for the attack on the town. The fire found in their hut served to warm those who were benumbed, and they continued their route, having previously detached Giguieres, a Canadian, with nine Indians, on the lookout.

"They discovered no one, and returned to join the main body within one league of Corlaer.

"At eleven of the clock at night, they came within sight of the town (but) resolved to defer the assault until two o'clock of the morning. But the excessive cold admitted of no further delay.

"The town of Corlaer forms a sort of oblong with only two gates — one opposite the road we had taken; — the other leading to Orange, which is only six leagues distant. Messieurs de Sainte Helene and de Mantet were to enter at the first which the Squaws pointed out, and which in fact was found wide open. Messieurs d'Iberville and de Montesson took the left with another detachment, in order to make themselves masters of that leading to Orange. But they could not discover it, and returned to join the remainder of the party. A profound silence was every where observed, until the two commanders, who separated, at their entrance into the town for the purpose of encircling it, had met at the other extremity.

"The signal of attack was given Indian fashion, and the whole force rushed on simultaneously. M. de Mantet placed himself at the head of a detachment, and reached a small fort where the garrison was under arms. The gate was burst in after a good deal of difficulty, the whole set on fire, and all who defended the place slaughtered.

"The sack of the town began a moment before the attack on the fort. Few houses made any resistance, M. de Montigny discovered some, which he attempted to carry sword in hand, having tried the musket in vain. He received two thrusts of a spear — one in the body and the other in the arm. But M. de Sainte Helene having come to his aid, effected an entrance, and put every one who defended the place to the sword. The massacre lasted two hours. The remainder of the night was spent in placing sentinels, and in taking some repose.

"The house belonging to the minister was ordered to be saved, so as to take him alive to obtain information from him; but as it was not known, it was not spared any more than the others. He was slain and his papers burnt before he could be recognized.

"At daybreak some men were sent to the dwelling of Mr. Coudre [Condre (?) Sander], who was major of the place, and who lived at the other side of the river. He was not willing to surrender, and began to put himself on the defensive with his servants and some Indians; but as it was resolved not to do him any harm, in consequence of the good treatment that the French had formerly experienced at his hands, M. d'Iberville and the Great Mohawk proceeded thither alone, promised him quarter for himself, his people, and his property, whereupon he laid down his arms, on parole, entertaining them in his fort, and returned with them to see the commandants of the town.

"In order to occupy the savages, who would otherwise have taken to drink and thus render themselves unable for defence, the houses had already been set on fire. None were spared in the town but one house belonging to Condre [Sander Glen], and that of a widow [Bratt], who had six children, whither M. de Montigny had been carried when wounded. All the rest were consumed. The lives of between fifty and sixty persons, old men, women and children were spared, they having escaped the first fury of the attack. Some twenty Mohawks were also spared, in order to show them that it was the English and not they against whom the grudge was entertained.

"The loss on this occasion in houses, cattle and grain, amounts to more than four hundred thousand livres. There were upwards of eighty well built and well furnished houses in the town.

"The return march commenced with thirty prisoners. The wounded, who were to be carried, and the plunder, with which all the Indians and some Frenchmen were loaded, caused considerable inconvenience. Fifty good horses were brought away. Sixteen of these only reached Montreal. The remainder were killed for food on the road.

"Sixty leagues from Corlaer the Indians began to hunt, and the French not being able to wait for them, being short of provisions, continued their route, having detached Messieures d'Iberville and Du Chesne with two savages before them to Montreal. On the same day, some Frenchmen, who doubtless were much fatigued, lost their way. Fearful that they should be obliged to keep up with the main body, and believing themselves in safety having eighty Indians in their rear, they were found missing from the camp. They were waited for next day until eleven o'clock, but in vain, and no account has since been received of them.

"Two hours after, forty men more left the main body without acquainting the commander, continued their route by themselves, and arrived within two leagues of Montreal one day ahead, so that there were not more than fifty or sixty men together. The evening on which they should arrive at Montreal, being extremely fatigued from fasting and bad roads, the rear fell away from M. de Sainte Helene, who was in front with an Indian guide, and who could not find a place suitable for camping nearer than three or four leagues of the spot where he expected to halt. He was not rejoined by M. de Mantet and the others until far advanced in the night. Seven have not been found. Next day on parade, about ten o'clock in the forenoon, a soldier arrived who announced that they had been attacked by fourteen or fifteen savages, and that six had been killed. The party proceeded somewhat afflicted at this accident, and arrived at Montreal at 3 o'clock p. m.

"Such, Madame, is the account of what passed at the taking of Corlaer. The French lost but twenty-one men, namely four Indians and seventeen Frenchmen. Only one Indian and one Frenchman were killed at the capture of the town. The others were lost on the road." — Doc. Hist. N. Y., I, 186.

"In a book entitled "Mortgages B" found in the office of the clerk of Albany county, is the following account: (251-1)

"Albany ye 9th day of February 1689/90

Die Sabbathi.

"This morning about 5 o'clock ye alarm was brought here by Symon Schermerhoorn who was shott threw his Thigh yt ye french and Indians had murthered ye People of Skinnechtady; haveing got into ye Towne about 11 or 12 a Clock there being no Watch Kept (ye Inhabitants being so negligent & Refractory) and yt he had much a doe to Escape they being very numerous. They fyred severall times at him at last throw his Thigh and wounded his horse and was come over to Canatagione (Niskayuna) to bring ye news. * * * *

"Severall ye People haveing Escaped ye Cruelty of ye french and there Indians came Running here & told us ye Village was a fyre and yt they had much a doe to Escape for all ye streets were full of french and Indians & yt many People were murthered and yt ye enemy were marching hither which news was Continually Confirmed till afternoon. * * * *

"Some horse men sent out to Discover ye Enemies force and there march but were forced to Return ye snow being so Deep yet some were sent out again who got thither. Lawrence ye Indian with ye Maquase yt were in Towne were sent out also to Skinnechtady to Dispatch posts to ye Maquase Castles for all ye Indians to come downe, but unhappily sad Indians comeing to Skinnechtady were so much amazed to see so many People murthered and Destroyed that they omitted ye sending up to ye Maquase Castles according to there Engagement, While ye Enemy was at N. Scotia a man came to Ensign Joh: Sander Glen and said he would goe to ye Maquase Castles and warn ye Maquase to come downe who was ordered to goe in all haste but comeing to ye Upper Plantations went for fear along with some of ye oyr Inhabitants into ye Woods and never went to ye Maquase Castles, this night we gott a letter from Skinnechtady Informing us yt ye Enemy yt had done yt mischieffe there were about one hundred and fifty or 200 men but that there were 1400 men in all. One army for Albany & anoyr for Sopus which hindered much ye marching of any force out of ye Citty fearing yt ye enemy might watch such an opportunity.

"The 10th day of February.

"Present. — Pr. Schuyler, Mayr; D. Wessels, Recr; J. Bleecker, Capt. Bull, Capt. Staets, Ald. Schaick, Ald. Ryckman, Joh: Cuyler, Ens. Bennett,

"Resolved yt Capt. Jonathan Bull be sent wth 5 men out of each Compy to Skinnechtady to bury ye dead there & if ye Indians be come doune to join with them & Pursue ye Enemy.

"The way how ye Bloody French and Indians committed this tragedy was thus.

"After they were gott into ye Toune without being discovered (no watch or guard being kept, notwithstanding severall gentn of Albany no longer than three days before were up there to Perswade ym to it), The french and ye Indians besett each house and after they had murthered ye People they burnt all ye houses and barns Cattle &ca Except 5 @ 6; which were saved by Capt Sander [Glen] to whom they were kinde as they had particular orders so to be by reason of ye many kindnesse shewne by his wife to ye french Prisoners." — Mort. Bk. B., Alb. Co. clerk's office.

A few days subsequent to the massacre at Schenectady, Pieter Schuyler, mayor, and Dirk Wessels Ten Broeck, recorder of Albany, and Kilian Van Rensselaer, Patroon of Rensselaerswyck, addressed the following appeal to the Governor Bradstreet and Council of Massachusetts. This letter as well as one from Capt. Bull, was answered by the Governor and Council on the 27th of February.

"Albany ye 15th day of febr, 1689/90.

"Honrd Gentn.

"To our great greeffe and Sorrow we must acquaint you with our Deplorable Condition there haveing never ye Like Dreadfull massacre and murther been Committed in these Parts of America, as bath been acted by ye french and there Indians at Shinnectady 20 miles from Albanie Betwixt Saturday and Sunday Last, at 11 a clok at night. A Companie of Two hundred french and Indians fell upon said village and murther'd Sixty men women and Children most Barbarously, Burning ye Place and Carried 27 along with them Prisoners, among which the Leift of Capt. Bull Enos Talmadge & 4 more of sd Company were killed & 5 taken Prisoners ye Rest being Inhabitants and above 25 Persones there Limbs frozen in ye flight.

"The Cruelties Committed at sd Place no Penn can write nor Tongue Expresse, ye women big with Childe Rip'd up and ye Children alive throwne into ye Flames, and there heads Dash'd in pieces against the doors and windows.

"But what shall we say we must Lay our hands upon our mouth and be silent. It is Gods will and Pleasure and we must Submitt, it is but what our Sinns and Transgressions have Deserv'd. And since Generally humane things are Directed by outward means, so we must ascribe this sad misfortune to ye factions and Divisions which were amongst ye People and there great Dissobedience to there officers for they- would Obey no Commands or keep any watch, so yt ye Enemie haveing Discovered there Negligence and Security by there Praying maquase Indians (who were in sd Place 2 or 3 Days before ye attaque was made) Came in and Broak open there verry doors before any Soule knew of it, ye Enemy Divideing themselfs in 3 severall Companies Came in at 3 severall Places no gate being shutt, and Seperated themselfs 6 or 7 to a house and in this manner begunn to Murther spareing no man till they see all ye houses open and masterd, and so took what Plunder they would, Loading 30 or 40 of ye Best horses and so went away about 11 or 12 a Clock at noon on Sabbath day.

"It was as if ye heavens Combined for ye Destruction of ye Poor Villadge; That Saturday night a Snow fell above knee Deep and Dreadfull cold, and ye Poor People yt Escaped and brought us ye news about break of day did so much Increase ye numbers of ye Enemy that we all Concluded there was a Considerable Army comeing to fall upon our City as was affirmed were upon there March hither; we being told not only then but ye day drat they were 1900 att Least, we sent out some few horse forthwith after after we had Recd ye news, but scarcely could get throw ye Deep Snow, some whereof gott to yt De Solato [desolate] Place, and there being some few maquase here in Towne we got them to goe thither with our men in Companie to send messengers in all haste to ye Maquase Castles, and to Spye where the Enemy went, who were not very free to goe ye Snow being so Deep and afraid of being Discovered by there Tract; but comeing to ye Village were in such Consternation seeing so many People & Catle kill'd and Burnt, that it was not Effected till 2 days after, when we heard yt ye Maquase knew nothing of it, upon which messengers were sent, and the Maquase of ye first and 2d Castle came downe in 24 houres whom we sent out with some of our young men in Pursute of ye Enemy: afterwards ye Maquase of ye 3d Castle came downe who are also gone out, but are afraid will not overtake them, & which is worse if they doe fynde them fear will doe them no great hurt ye Indians amongst them being all of ye kindred of our Indians; for ye Policy of ye french is so great that they Declar'd to some of ye Maquase which they founde at Shinnechtady that they would not doe the Maquase harm Yea if they should burn and Destroy never so many houses at Canida and kill never so many french, they would not touch a hayr of there head; for there Governr had such an Inclination to that People he would live in Peace with them; nay to gain the hearts of ye Maquase whatever they Desyred at Shinnechtady was graunted ye women and Children that were left alive upon there Desyre were Released and saved, ye very houses where ye Maquase lay at were saved upon there Request, so that they leave no stone unturned to bring ye Indians to there Devotion.

"The 40 Maquase that were out as Skouts at ye Lake whom we furnish'd with Powder and Lead to lye there a Purpose, we must Conclude have knowne nothing of ye Enemies Comeing; for they had Posted themselfs at one of ye Passages, and before they had sent men to ye oyr Passage ye Enemy was Past by, which we must Impute to there negligence.

"The sd French had Belts of wampum along with them which they showed to a maquase Squae at Shinnechtady which they Design'd to have given to our Indians upon Proposealls of Peace if they had met with any upon ye way, soe yt we must Conclude they want nothing but a Peace with our Indians to Destroy al the sd Parts.

"Our Maquase have got one of there Indians Prisoner whom they have Tortur'd and afterwards have Released him, but Delivered him into our Custody; for we feard he would make his Escape and Runn away to ye Enemy; ye sd Indian Confesses that there were 600 men Preparing to come out upon this Place or N. England, and one hundred men were gone out against Skachkook Indians which Was Besides this 200 men; & that this Company had been 22 days from Canida.

"After ye French had done ye Principall mischieffe at Shinnechtady Capt. Sander a Justice yt lives cross ye River was sent for by ye Capt. of ye French, who had Put himself in a Posture of Defence in his fort with the men that he could get by him; when 13 came there and told him they should not fear for there orders was not to wrong a Chicken of his, upon which Capt Sander Ordered them to lay downe there arms, and so were let in where they Left one man for a hostage & Capt. Sander went to there Commander who told him he had Commission to come and Pay a Debte which they owed; Col Dongan our govr. had stirrd up our Indians to doe mischief at Canida, & they had done the same here; and Pulling his Commission out of his Bosom told he was strikley Charged not to doe any harm to him or his, since he but Especially his wife had been so Charitable to ye french Prisoners, so yt Capt Sander saved sundrey houses from being burnt and women & Children from being Carried away; But ye Snow was so Extream Deep yt it was Impossible for any woman to march a mile, so they took none but men and boys that could march.

"As soon as ye Maquase of ye first and 2d Castle came downe and see ye Ruines of Shennechtady were Verry much griev'd The 2 Principall Captns said to Mr Wessels and some oyr gent. yt were sent from Albany to Dispatch ye Christians and Indians away in Pursute of ye french. Now you see your Blood spilt, and this is ye beginning of ye miseries if not suddenly Prevented. Therefore write to all them that are in Covenant with us Vizt. New England Virginia and all ye English Plantaçons of America to make all Readinesse to master Canida early in the Spring with Great Shipps Else you cannot live in Peace You Say ye King is a great king, and you are Very numerous here in this Country farr above ye French you are so But now is the time to show it, else ye more you are ye greater shame it is to suffer ye French to be master; and then we and all the 5 nations yea all ye farr nations must acknowlege ym for a great People and master of ye french if you now Subdue it. But hitherto we see ye french are the Souldiers they have been at ye northwest and killd ye English there; They have killd ye Indians at ye Sinnekes Country and now they come here and kill ye Dutch meaning ye Inhabitants of Shinnechtady who were formerly of ye Dutch nation. They are Victorious wherever they goe. Them of N. England have told us they would Destroy Canida, we have much Depended upon there great Promises since we know they are Potent Enough to doe it, & now we know there is open warr. If we were but assured yt ye English would minde theree Interest now and make Ready against ye spring we would keep them in alarm, we must goe hand in hand and Destroy the french, we hope yt ye Governr with men is come which you have often told us off. You told us also yt ye king of England was so Potent that he had Blokt up the french havens; yet ye French govr is come & we hear nothing of yours. In ye mean time we goe out now with Sixty Maquase of ye first & 2d Castle 25 River Indians Besides ye Christians and above 100 men of ye 3d Castle are comeing to morrow, we will Pursue ye Enemy and doubt not but to overtake them too; and Rescue ye Prisoners.

"Now Gentn The Indians Speak well yet we are Satisfyed by all there actions that they will side with ye Strongest and ye Indians yt are among ye French are all of our Indian Relations, so yt it cannot be Imagined that they will Destroy or anoy; Therefore if there majes subjects doe not Rise like one only man against ye French there Majes Interest in these Parts will be Destroyed, and they once being Rooted out all oyr Evills which Spring from them as the fountain will be quashed, the Longer we stay the worse it will be, for we must doe it at last and then probably after we have lost many hundreds of our People which would be fitt to help in such an Expedition; we have felt ye smart of that nation and Pray God our neighbours may not come to ye same Disaster, we are Satisfyed they did not Design to Destroy Shinnectady but all our out Plantations but fyndeing them so secure sett upon them & left the oyr untoucht thinkeing they could never Escape there Cruelties.

"Dear neighbours and friends we must acquaint yu yt never Poor People in ye world was in a worse Condition then we are at Present, no governour nor Command no money to forward any Expedition and Scarce men enough to maintain ye Citty and we must Conclude there only aim is this Place which once being attaind ye 5 nations are Rent from ye English Crown & in Stead of being a Bulwark to these Dominions as hitherto they have Proov'd will help to Ruine and Destroy the Countrey and Lay all waste. We have here Plainly Laid ye Case before yu and doubt not but you will so much take it to heart and make all Readinesse in ye Spring to Invade Canida by water. We Pray God Continually for ye arriveall of our Govr without which we can doe but litle haveing enough to doe to keep ye Indians to our side with great Expense; for these Distractions and Revolutions at N: Yorke hath brougt us into a miserable Condition, That without yr assistance and the 50 men from N. Yorke we should not be able to keep ye Place if any Enemy came wee begg an answer with al haste yt we may Satisfy ye Indians, we write to N: Yorke and oyr Parts of our mean Condition. We long much to hear from yr honrs haveing sent an Indian Expresse ye 15 January last with what papers Related to ye Indians at yt time, since when our messengers are come from onnendage and ye Indians al declare to be faithfull to this governmt. We have writt to Col Pynchon to warn ye upper townes to be upon there guarde feareing yt some french & Indians might be out to Destroy them. We have no more to add in these Troublesome times but yt we are

Honble gent.

Your most humble & obedt servts
ye Convention of Albanie
Pr Schuyler, Mayor

[Signatures of officials: original size (6K) | 9x enlarged (27K)] (256-1)

The Mayor, &c: of Albany their bre giveing accot of ye ffrench & Indians cutting of a Town of English, &c., many things & Dutch Feb., 1689."

[Mass. Archives, 239-246.]

"The Governor & Council of Massachusets to the Mayor, recorder, &c., of Albany.

"Boston, 27th February, 1689/90.

"Honrd Gentn.

Yors of the 15th instant bringing the sad and Solemn News of the desolation of Schinectedy, and the barbarous cruelties exercised towards the people of that place came to hand on Munday the 24th of this instant, which is a loud Alarm to the whole Country to make all meet preparation to put themselves in a posture of defence. The Government here have had before them the consideration of an expedition against the French in the Eastern parts And have consented to severall propositions for the Encouragement of such as shall undertake the charge of carrying on the same, divers considerable Gentlemen Offering to advance towards it, and hope that something will be soon brought to Effect in that matter the people here seeming to be greatly Spirited therein. It is very unhappy that the animosities and divisions amongst the people in yor parts and refusing to Subject to any order should make them careless and neglective of their duty for their own Security and to expose themselves thereby to the incursion of the Enemy. It's hoped this sad providence will Awaken them that are yet unattacked to unite for the comxxxon Safety and to make provision accordingly, and be very diligent in their watches to prevent Surprise. Should the French gain any more such advantages it is to be feared that it would farther their jesuitical insinuations with the Indians and draw them to their side, when they see their Success and Observe the security and divisions that are among the English, yor care and Endeavours to hold the Indians firme to their promiss and Covenant lately renewed may by no meanes be wanting at this time; And it will highly concern the English of these Colony's and those of New Yorke and Maryland & Va to maintain a good correspondance and intelligence at this critical time and to unite against a comxxxon Enemy. In which wee shall not be wanting on our parts as Occasion shall offer.

"Wee thanke you for yr care in the Speedy Intelligence and notice given of the danger to the upper Towns of this Colony. And desire the farther comunication from time to time of what may occur for their Maties Service, Comxxxending you to the gracious Protection of the Almighty.


Gentn yor Friends and Servant the Governor and Councill of their Maties Colony of the Massachusetts Bay. Signed by their Order." — Mass. Archives, Book XXXV, 277-8.

Governor Bradstreet & Council of Massachusetts Bay in answer to a letter from Capt. Jonathan Bull commander of the connecticut troops stationed at Albany & Schenectady.

"Boston Feb. 27 1689/90.

"Capt Bull.

"Altho' we are excedingly greived for the horrid Tragedy lately acted at Schenectady, yet the matter of fact being so, we are glad to be informd of it by the Albany Magistrates, and your self. Because tho' it's to late to succor that dolefull desolate place; yet the Example of it may be a means to prevent the like Ruine to ourselves. And if their Destruction doe thoroughly awaken us, that being forewarnd we may become forearmd we shall be so far happy. Your sorrowfull account does the more concern us, because we therein take notice of five of our Men slain & five Captivated, the Leiut being among the slain. Twas very Commendably done of you to endeavour a pursuit of the Enemy; and when that designe faild to shew the last office of Humanity in providing a Grave for ye bodyes of our murdered Freinds and Neighbours. One would hope that the very looks and hideous Complaints of the poor frosen persons who escaped would be an Oration powerfull enough to persuade your Cityzens to peace & Unity. Tis an universall Truth that a Cyty divided against itself cannot stand Albany New York and Boston must finally die the death, if stricken with the same Division Plague. The Lord inspire you and the Citizens with that Courage, Prudence and Unanimity, as not to think of deserting so important and defensible a Post as Albany is; the hinge upon which in a great measure the weight of our present New England affairs doth turn. Division is your Ruine you say; but where can you so probably expect a Cure of it, as in that Neigbbourhood: And without a Cure that disease will prove mortall Whatsoever Town or Climate you betake your selves to. Twould be satisfactory to us for you in your next to say how many fighting men were in Schenectady, how well provided with Great Guns and small Armes, of what strength & Circumference the fortification whether it be now Tenable or no, so as to give any encouragemt to the French to place a Garrison there; what Church & Minister was in the place.

"An Embargoe is laid upon all vessells here this day which is to take effect the eight of March next That so we may the more vigorously apply our selves to the present Expedition against the French at the Eastward and to the defence of our own Frontier Towns, of which by the Blessing of God we hope we may in some short time be able to give you a good account. We are very sensible of the good Correspondance Albany Gentlemen hold with us in Communicating to us what occurs. In the same storm wherein Schenectady was lost, Skippar Dotey of Plimouth, his son, and Elkana Watson were Cast away on Barnstable Barr, & all three lost their Lives, but whether by sea, or by persons, on shoar more inimicall than the sea itself, is matter of Doubt & Jealousy. The America a ship of near two hundred Tunns is near ready to saill for London, by which Conveyance, shall give a full account all Passages to our Agents, if we do not send on Purpose. Not doubting but all prudent means will be used by your Magistrates to fix the five Nations on our side. We pray God to prosper you and us, as that our Actions may gain Credit with them, and so take leave remaining yor Loveing ffriends.

The Govr & Councill of the Massachusetts Colony signed by their order.

The Treasurer has given ye Bearer Fourty shillings to help bear his charges and even ye score in Town as to himselfe his Companion and Horses." — Mass. Archives, XXXV, 279.

The survivors of the massacre had become so discouraged by their late terrible experience, that it was seriously debated whether the settlement should not be abandoned. The frontiers were now so harrassed by straggling parties of the enemy, that the husbandmen could not safely plant and harvest their crops.

In the midst of these discouragements the Mohawks strove to dissuade them from abandoning their plantations, promising them aid, and counselling them to fortify their village more substantially.

At a council held in Albany by the Sachems and the chief inhabitants of Albany and Schenectady, the Mohawks made the following speech to their white brethren.

"25 Feb. 1690

"Propositions made by the Sachims of ye Maquase Castles to ye Mayor &c. — of ye Citty of Albany, * * 25th day of February 1689/90.

"Brethren. — Wee are sory and Extreamly grieved for ye murther Lately Committed by ye french upon our Brethren of Shinnectady wee Esteem this evill as if done to ourselfs being all in one Covenant chain, * *

"Wee Lament and Condole the death of so many of our brethren so basely murthered at Shinnectady, we can not accompt it a great victory for itt is done byway of Deceit.

"Brethren. — Doe not be discouraged this is butt a beginning of ye Warr we are strong eneugh the whole house have there Eyes fixed upon yrs and they only stay your motion and will bee ready to doe whatever shall be resolved upon by our Brethren. * * * *

"Wee Recommed ye brethren to keep good watch and if any Enemies came take care yt mesengers be more speedily sent to us than lately was done we would not advise ye brethren quite to deseret Shinnectady but to make a fort there. The Enemy would be too glorious to see it quite desolate and yr Towne is not well fortifyed ye Stockades, are so short ye Indians can jump over them like a dogg. * * *" — Doc. Hist., II.

"Leisler to the Bishop of Salisbury, 31 Mar. 1690.

* * they murthered 60 persons and bore away with them 27 prisoners, wounding some others so that there remain but about one sixth part of them, having their cattle, goods and provision destroyed; and arrested from them, the remnant sheltering them selves at Albany, where there is provision made for them from New Yorke.

"Robert Livingston to Sir Edmund Andros, ap. 14, 1690.

* * * On ye 9th of Feby last a Compy of 250 French and Indians came upon yt place when they were all asleep about 11 a'clock at night, and killed & destroyed 60 men women and children, carryed 27 men and boys prisoners and burnt ye towne except 6 or 7 houses which are saved by Capt. Sander [Glen], whom they did not touch, having Expresse command to meddle with none of his relations for his wifes sake, who had always been kind to ye French prisoners.

"The people of that Towne were so bygotted to Leysler that they would not obey any of ye Magistrates neither would they entertain ye Souldiers sent thither by yt Convention of Albany, nothing but men sent from Leysler would do theire turn.

"Thus had Leysler perperted yt poor people by his seditious letters now founde all bloody upon Skinnechtady streets, with the notions of a free trade boalting etc., and thus are they destroyed; they would not watch, and where Capt. Sander [Glen] commanded, there they threatened to burn him upon ye fire, if he came upon the garde.* * *" — Doc. Hist. I, 193.

Extract from Leisler's letter to Maryland.

March 4, 1689/90.

* * 200 men fell upon them (Shenectady) and barbarously murdered sixty-two men, women and children and burned the place left but 5 or 6 houses unburned, carried away captive 27; the rest escaped, many of which being about 25 persons much damnified by the french. * * *

"By the Comrs for Albany &c.

"Forasmuch as it is of high Concern to preserve his Majties City and county of Albany from the rage and mischief of the French and their adherents, who to or sad experience have made divers attempts upon the skirts of the same; Wee doe therefore Order, and hereby it is ordered that the posts of Schanechtede, Connestigieone and the half Moone be forthwith supplyed with proper numbers of men to defend the same, * * * * * 12th day of May, 1690." — Doc. Hist., II.

In regard to the number of persons killed and carried away to Canada at the destruction of Schenectady, the best accounts agree substantially. The names of sixty persons massacred and of twenty-seven captives, have been preserved among the historical documents in the office of the secretary of State and are given below, accompanied by remarks as to their residences in the village. It will be noticed that the largest number of the slain resided when living on State Street; hence the survivors called this street Martelaer's straat, in pious remembrance of their slaughtered relatives and neighbors, — a name whose significance and sentiment are in striking contrast with the utter poverty of invention and good taste shown by their descendants in borrowing a name from Albany for their chief business street.

"List of ye People kild and Destroyed by ye French of Canida and there Indians at Skinnechtady twenty miles to ye Westward of Albany, between Saturday and Sunday ye 9th day of February, 1689/90.

Myndert Wemp kild" (1)

He was the eldest son of Jan Barentse Wemp (Wemple) who owned half the great island west of the town and died in 1663, leaving another son Barent and two daughters.

Myndert's house lot was on the west side of Washington street a little north of State street. His son Johannes was carried away to Canada but was redeemed and lived many years afterwards.

"Jan Van Eps and his sonne and 2 of his Children kild." (4)

Jan Van Eps was the only son of Dirk Van Eps and Maritie Damens. The father died early and the mother married two husbands afterwards, the last of whom was Cornelis Van Nes of Albany. With Jan Van Eps were also killed three of his children, and a fourth, Jan Baptist, then seventeen years of age was carried away by the French. He remained with the Indians three years, but finally escaped in one of their excursions against the Mohawks. On account of his familiarity with the language of the natives, he was often employed by the Governors of the Province as an interpreter.

The Van Eps house lot was on the north corner of Church and State streets and embraced about two hundred feet on each street.

The east half, including the corner, was early sold to the Bratts.

It is probable that Van Eps resided upon the west half at the time of massacre.

"Sergt Church of Capt. Bull's compy." (1)

"Barent Janse [Van Ditmars] killd and Burnd his sonne kild." (2)

His son's name was Cornelis, — a young man of mature age, the husband of Catharina Glen, daughter of Sander Leendertse Glen.(?) The elder Van Ditmars in 1664, married Catalyntie De Vos, widow of Arent Andriese Bratt, one of the earliest settlers of Schenectady, by whom she had six children, all living at the time of her second marriage.

At the time of the massacre she was living with her family on her village lot — on the east corner of Washington and State streets, and it was here that Van Ditmars and his son Cornelis were slain.

"Andries Arentse Bratt shott and Burnt and also his Child" [one child]. (2)

He was the eldest son of Arent Andriese Bratt and Catalyntie De Vos above mentioned, and lived on the same ample lot (200 ft. square), as his mother, on the north side of State street. In the massacre his wife Margareta Jacobse Van Slyck, and two other children were spared.

"Maria Vielè wife of Dowe Aukes and her two children killd, (3)
and his Negro Woman Francyn, (1)
Maria Alolff Wife of Cornelis Vielè Junr Shott." (1)

These five persons were killed in one house, standing on the south corner of Mill lane and State street next the ancient church. Aukes kept an Inn there; Vielè was uncle of his wife and subsequently became heir of property.

At the same time Arnout Cornelise Vielè, brother of Aukes' wife, was carried away to Canada.

"Sweer Teunise [Van Velsen] Shott and burnt his wife kild & burnt, (2)
Antje Janz daughter of Jan Spoor kild & burnt, (1)
Item 4 Negroes of ye said Sweer Teunise ye same death, (4)
Enos Talmidge Leift. of Capt. Bull kild & burnt." (1)

All in one house.

Van Velsen's house was next east of Douwe Aukes' above mentioned, on the south side of State street, now numbers 54 and 56. He was the town miller and directly in the rear of his house stood his corn mill on Mill lane.

As he died without heirs, his estate was divided among his wife's children, — the Wemps, — a portion being reserved for the church.

"Hend: Meese Vrooman & Bartholomeus Vrooman kild & burnt, (2)
Item 2 negroes of Hend: Meese ye same death." (2)

He lived on the north side of State street where the New York Central railroad crosses. All the Vroomans in this vicinity are his descendants through his two sons Adam and Jan.

"Gerrit Marcellis and his wife and Childe kiled," (3)

He was son of Marselis Janse of Albany. At the time of his death he was residing on the lots now occupied by McCamus & Co.'s stores.

"Robt Alexander souldr of Capt Bulls Shott." (1)

He was probably quartered in the blockhouse at north angle of the village at the corner of Front and Washington streets.

"Robert Hesseling." Residence unknown. (1)

"Sander ye sonne of gysbert gerritse [Van Brakel] kild & burnt," (1)

He lived on the east corner of Ferry and State streets.

"Jan Roeloffse de goyer burnt in ye house," (1)

He was son of the famous Anneke Janse, and lived upon the lot of Mr. G. Y. Van de Bogart opposite the Court House. He left no descendants.

"Ralph grant a souldier in ye fort shott," (1)

"David Christoffelse & his wife wth 4 children all burnt in there house," (6)

His house lot was on the east side of Church street now occupied by the late Mrs. Volney Freeman.

He was the son of Christoffel Davids of Albany, an Englishman by birth.

"Joris Aertse [Vander Baast] shott and burnt, Wm Pieterse kild," (2)

His house lot was on the south corner of Church & Union streets.

"Joh: Potman kild his wife kild and her scalp taken off," (2)

His house stood on the lot on the north corner of Ferry and Union streets where Mr. Barney now lives.

He was the ancestor of the Putmans of this vicinity.

"Dome Petrus Tassemaker ye minister kild and burnt in his house" (1)

"Frans Harmense [Van de Bogart] kild." (1)

His house lot was on Front street — and near the north gate.

His son Claas was carried away, but was afterwards redeemed.

"Engel the wife of Adam Vrooman shot and burnt her child the brains dashed out against ye wall." (2)

Her maiden name was Engeltie Blom. Vrooman's house stood on the lot on the west corner of Front and Church streets.

His son Barent and a negro were carried away to Canada.

"Reynier Schaats and his sonne kild." (2)

He was son of Dome Gideon Schaets of Albany; — surgeon and physician of the village as well as justice of the peace. His lot was on the north side of Union street, now owned by the county of Schenectady.

"Daniel Andries & George 2 souldiers of Capt. Bull." (2)

"A french girl Prisoner among the Mohogs kild." (1)

"A maquase Indian kild." (1)

"Johannes ye sonne of Symon Skermerhorn, (1)

"3 Negroes of Symon Skermerhorn." (3)

He probably lived on the west corner of Church and Union streets — the Tomlinson lot."

"Lyst of ye Persones which ye French & there Indians have taken Prisoners att Skinnechtady and caried to Canida ye 9th day of February 1689/90,

Johannes Teller & his negroe." (2)

The Teller lot was on the east corner of Union and Washington streets, extending 200 feet along each street.

Teller was redeemed from the Indians.

"John Wemp sonne of Myndt Wemp and 2 negroes." (3)

The Wemps lived on the west side of Washington, a little north of State street.

"Symon, Abraham, Phillip, Dyrck and Claas Groot all 5 sonnes of Symon Groot." (5)

His house lot was next west of Reynier Schaets' on the north side of Union street, now owned by the county of Schenectady and A. W. Hunter, Esq. All these sons were redeemed with perhaps the exception of Claas.

"Jan Baptist sonne of Jan Van Eps." (1)

The Van Eps lot was on the north corner of Church and State streets, Jan remained among the Canadian Indians about three years, and in one of their expeditions against the Mohawks escaped and returned home.

"Albert & Johannes Vedder sonnes of harme Vedder." (2)

Harmen Vedder the father, had a hofstede on the bouwland, now owned and occupied by Mr. John D. Campbell of Rotterdam, and it is not certainly known that he had a village lot.

Both were redeemed.

"Isaak Cornelise Switts & his Eldest sonne." (2)

He lived on the west side of Washington street directly opposite State. Both were redeemed.

"A negroe of Barent Janse [Van Ditmars]" (1)

Van Ditmars married Mrs. Bratt in 1664 and lived upon the lot on the east corner of State and Washington streets.

"Arnout ye Sonne of Arnout Corn: Vielè ye Interpr." (1)

Arnout was brother-in-law of Douwe Aukes and was residing at his house on the south corner of State street and Mill Lane near the church.

"Stephen ye sonne of Gysbert Gerritse [Van Brakel]" (1)

Van Brakel resided on the East corner of Ferry and State streets.

"Lawrence Sonne of Claes Lawrence Purmurent [Vander Volgen]." (1)

The Vander Volgen home lot included the lots on which are built the Van Horne Hall and the Myers' Block.

Lawrence remained with the Canada Indians about eleven years, becoming perfectly familiar with their language and customs. After his return he was employed as Provincial interpreter.

"Arnout Sonne of Paulyn Janse." Residence unknown. (1)

"Barent ye Sonne of Adam Vrooman and ye neger." (2)

"Claes sonne of Frans Harmense [Van de Bogart]." (1)

His father's village lot was on the north side of Front street, now the residence of Mr. Henry Rosa.

"Stephen adopted Sonne of Geertje Bonts." Residence unknown. (1)

"John Webb a souldier belonging to Capt Bull," (1)

"David Burt belonging to ye same Compe," (1)

"Joseph Marks of ye same Compe," (1)

In all (266-1) 27

"List of the Goods sent from New York and received from Monsr Jan Hendricksen Brujn and Johannes Proofoost to be distributed among the Refugees of Schoonechtede, to wit:

And delivered to the Deacons of Schoonechtede and the Deacons of Albany, to wit:

Barent Wemp, Johannes De Wandelaer, Jan Byvanck, Jacob Loockermans.

3 ps. sarge distributed of 79 & 3/4

List of the Pennestont to (Pennestont)

72 ells

List of Stockings.

The number of Stockings, 13 prs.

List of the Osenburg Linen.

Distributed in Schoonechtede, 1809 ells

List of the Linen distributed in the Bush. [Woestine.]


From the other side, 1809


By Me Johannes De Wandelaer, Deacon of Albany. (268-1)

As the people of Albany were connected with those of Schenectady by ties of blood and marriage, the latter received much aid from the former.

Thus in the Deacon's book of the church of Albany, immediately after the destruction of Schenectady, are found the following entries for goods given away.

Feb. 12.Aen Purmerent [Claas Laurense Van der Volgen], 8 el linne en 7 el plets (?)29 guld.
 Aen ditto 2 1/3 el duffels en 7 el linne30 guld.
" 13.Aen Jan Spoor 8 ell linne. 
" 14.Aen Kornelis groot een hempt8 gul.
" 17.Aen purmerent [Claas Laurense Van der Volgen], 2 el duffels16 gul.

The following ballad, though without much literary merit, has some value for the facts set forth therein.

It was evidently written by a person belonging to the English garrison stationed at Albany.

"A Ballad

In which is set forth the horrid cruellties practised by the French and Indians on the Night of the 8th of Last February. The which I did compose Last Night in the space of one Hour, and am now writing, the Morning of Fryday, June 12, 1690. W. W.

God Prosper long our King and Queen
Our lives & Safeties all
A sad misfortune once there did
Schenectady befall.

From forth the woods of Canada
The Frenchmen tooke their Way
The People of Schenectady
To captivate and slay.

They march'd for two & twenty dais,
All thro' the deepest snow;
And on a dismal Winter Night
They strucke the Cruel Blow.

The lightsome sun that rules the Day,
Had gone down in the West;
And eke the drowsy Villagers
Had sought and found their reste.

They thought They were in Safetie all,
And dreampt not of the Foe;
But att Midnight They all awoke,
In Wonderment & Woe.

For They were in their pleasant Beddies,
And soundelie sleeping, when
Each Door was sudden open broke
By six or seven Men.

The Men and Women Younge & Olde,
And eke the Girls & Boys,
All started up in great Affright,
Att the alarming Noise.

They then were murther'd in their Beddes
Without shame or remorse;
And soon the Floores and Streets were stew'd
With many a bleeding corse.

[Editorial note: Strew'd? Corpse?]

The Village soon began to Blaze
Which shew'd the horrid sight: —
But, O, I scarce can Beare to Tell
The Mis'ries of that Night.

They threw the Infants in the Fire,
The Men they did not spare;
But killed All which they could find
Tho' Aged or tho' Fair.

O Christe! In the still Midnight air,
It sounded dismally,
The Women's Prayers, and the loud screams,
Of their great Agony.

Methinks as if I hear them now
All ringing in my ear;
The Shrieks & Groanes & Woefull Sighs,
They utter'd in their Fear.

But some ran off to Albany,
And told the dolefull Tale
Yett tho' We gave our cheerful Aid,
It did not much avail.

And We were horribly afraid,
And shook with Terror, when
They told us that the Frenchmen were
More than a Thousand Men.

The News came on the Sabbath morn,
Just att the Break of Day.
And with a companie of Horse
I galloped away.

But soone We found the French were gone
With all their great Bootye;
And then their Trail We did pursue,
As was our true Dutye.

The Mohaques joynd our brave Partye,
And followed in the chase
Till we came upp with the Frenchmen,
Att a most likelye Place.

Our soldiers fell upon their Reare,
And killed twenty-five,
Our Young Men were so much enrag'd
They took scarce One alive.

D'Aillebout Them did commande,
Which were but Theevish Rogues,
Else why did they consent and Goe
With Bloodye Indian Dogges?

And Here I End the long Ballad,
The Which you just have redde;
I wish that it may stay on earth
Long after I am Dead.

Walter Wilie.

Albany, 12th of June, 1690."


(244-1) [The French account in Paris Documents states precisely, the town of Corlaer forms a sort of oblong with only two gates. — M'M.]

(245-1) [This probably included barns and out buildings as "good houses." — M'M.]

(245-2) [block-house properly speaking. — M'M.]

(246-1) [From painting by Giles F. Yates now in possession of his niece Mrs. A. A. Yates of Schenectady. The painter has doubtless taken the traditional poet's license in his drawing. It is very improbable that a single brick or clear two story house stood in Schenectady in 1690 — or until the middle of the next century when large bodies of British troops in the town or passing through, gave quiet and prosperity to the people. In 1690 they were poor farmers and Indian traders, with little wealth in money, carrying on their trade in produce, skins or sewant. — M'M.]

(251-1) In an ancient Dutch bible owned by Jacob G. Sanders of Albany, — a descendant of the Glens who settled at Scotia, — is the following account of the massacre:

1690. "tusschen de 8 & 9 Februarie is de droovige mort gedaan hereop Schenectady by de Franse en haar Wildes: — alles verdestreurt en Verbrant * * * op 5 huysen naer maer; maer op Schotieage [Scotia] neen quaet gedaen by akpresse order van haer governeur, Voor het goet doet myn grootvader [Sander Leendertse Glen], myn vader en Oem [Johannes & Sander Glen] aan een gevange paep priest & verscheiden anderen gevangen gedaen hadde in de oorlogh tussche onse Wildet & de Franse."

(256-1) [Prof. Pearson makes these signatures Dirk Wessells, Rekor and Kilien Van Rensselaer. I think they should be read Derck Wessells, Rekor and R. (Richard?) Van Rensselaer, Justice. — M'M.]

(266-1) Doc. Hist., I, 191.

(268-1) Doc. Hist. N. Y., II, III.

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