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Schenectady Railway Company - Trolley Trips in the Hudson-Mohawk Valleys

[This information is from a Schenectady Railway Company tourist brochure. It is undated, but internal evidence suggests it is from shortly after 1910. The brochure contains 42 illustrations (including 3 maps) which are reproduced here at their original and enlarged sizes.]

[Front Cover | Back Cover]

[15.5" x 8.5" Detailed Map of Schenectady Railway and Connections - 1x (325K) | 4x (993K)]

[Color drawing of the DeWitt Clinton's first run - 1x | 4x]

INTRODUCTORY

The electric railway service of to-day affords many conveniences in transportation undreamed of in the days when the "DeWitt Clinton," with its string of miniature coaches, ran upon its iron-bound wooden rails between Schenectady and Albany. Then, as the tourist arrived at the little brick station, still standing on the brow of Old Engine Hill, he overlooked the slumbering Dutch city of Schenectady, lying amid the magic charms of the Mohawk Valley, unmindful of the mighty promise of that first steam-driven railway engine and forgetful of the discomfort caused by uneven rails, springless coaches, and smoke-laden air.

The Mohawk & Hudson Railway, first pioneer of all passenger service, became the father of an offspring typical of its generation, a great system of steam passenger-carrying railroads. The tiny "DeWitt Clinton" proved to be the parent of a mammoth, for the time-defying, burden-bearing engine of to-day is not unfittingly so described.

The "DeWitt Clinton" made its first run on September 24, 1831, which memorable date marked the beginning of a new era, the era of steam as motive power for public transportation. The little brick station on Crane Street, Schenectady, where the eventful journey was ended, is a fitting monument to mark the spot where State dignitaries, representatives of many professions, and the early captains of industry gathered around the first railway engine and honored its marvelous accomplishment.

THE TRAILS OF THE VALLEY

Four centuries before the "DeWitt Clinton" made its first memorable trip from the Hudson to the Mohawk Valley, there existed a network of Indian trails, which a hundred years later became the pathway of the intrepid fur trader; and still later the roadway of the early colonist. That these trails were not discarded by the English, who laid claim to the rich valley lands in 1664, is clear, for as late as the eighteenth century they were marked by signs of crude workmanship, tokens of the anvil and the forge. These trails soon knew the horse and saddle, and these were rapidly followed by immigrant coaches westward bound to the extreme frontier. The Dutch settlement of Schenectady became subject to the quickening influences of trade. As the center of converging lines of travel, it developed into an important point from which nearest access to the frontier from the Atlantic seaboard was possible. The Mohawk River became a great waterway under the impulse, first of the canoe, then the batteaux, and, finally, the Durham boat being employed in the transportation of traffic. The coach and the train ultimately found their way through the valley. Then followed the building of the Erie Canal, and to-day, the steam locomotive has its supremacy threatened by the new electric engine of the twentieth century. But the modern highway of commerce and of trade, waterways and ways of steel as well, follow the ancient trail of the Indian runner.

[Sunset in Mohawk Land, Tienondaga Rift in the Mohawk River - View from the Antler Grounds, Tribes Hill - 1x | 4x]

THE VALLEY OF THE MOHAWKS

The grandeur of the scenery throughout the Mohawk Valley, with its "bowlands," its "hoeks" and graceful sweeps, its encompassing hills and nestling islands, is unsurpassed. Its beauties have entranced a continuing army of tourists, who for three centuries have felt its charm. Those who have visited this fairyland of hill and dale, who have seen its glorious sunrises and golden sunsets, who have climbed its hills and descended into its gorges with their hidden falls, cascades, and tumbling streams, know their power of fascination. Those who have followed the deserted Indian trails or delved into the secrets of a vanished race find in valued arrow heads, rough bits of fashioned stone, and fragments of pottery an interest of surpassing charm. To the Mohawk Valley, the Mohawk Indian came, as to a haven of refuge, when driven from his northern home by the fierce Algonquin.

Historians give much recognition to the warlike prowess of the Mohawks. After fifty years of incessant fighting against their hated enemies, the Algonquins, peace was declared in 1624. Declared but to be broken, for in 1626, their supremacy in the Valley was attacked by the Mohicans, who had the assistance of the Dutch.

The French settlements in Canada were helpless against, and demoralized by, the repeated attacks of the Mohawks, when in 1665, Marquis de Tracy arrived in Quebec, as Viceroy. Immediately following, De Courcelle, the new governor, undertook an expedition to destroy the Mohawk strongholds. His army, gaunt from privation and exhausted with fatigue, reached Schenectady on February 8, 1666. The expedition failed and De Courcelle returned to Canada. Led by Marquis de Tracy, a second expedition was equipped which took passage through Lake Champlain and Lake George and landed at the head of the Kayaderosseras trail. Following this trail, De Tracy's army passed Schenectady early in October, on its way to the Indian villages mentioned. Though the Mohawks themselves had fled, five of their strongholds were destroyed.

Meantime, the Mohicans had occupied the Mohawk country south of the river and soon attacked their warlike neighbors on the north. On August 18, 1669, the invading Mohicans were repulsed and decisively defeated at Towereune, a hill near Hoffmans. This was the last battle between these two great nations, as peace was declared in 1672.

Though checked by the French for a few years, th Mohawk warriors thirsted for revenge, and in July, 1689, set out for Montreal, in a flotilla of nearly 300 canoes, taking the Saratoga trail over 1,000 strong, they fell upon the French.

The atrocities of the Montreal expedition led to a war by the French upon the English. There soon followed, early in 1690, the terrible massacre of Schenectady. The settlers were caught unprepared by a hurried night attack. Many were killed, captured, or spared for a harsher fate.

In retaliation, the Mohawks fell upon the French Canadian settlements with great ferocity. The new governor, Count de Frontenac, determined to exterminate the Iroquois and led an expedition in person to the Mohawk Valley early in February, 1693. The first two castles were undefended, for the Mohawk warriors had fortified themselves in their third stronghold. Successful attack was made by the French troops, who killed many and captured 300 prisoners.

[Among the islands - Mohawk River - 1x | 4x]

[Steel bridge of Schenectady Railway Company across Mohawk River - 1x | 4x]

BLENDING THE TINTS

The excellence of its trolley service has made Schenectady popular with tourists. A country of great scientific and historic interest is traversed by the connecting lines of the Schenectady Railway Company. At Rexford Flats and Aqueduct, two lines of the railway company have their terminal stations. Near by is the State Aqueduct, a massive structure over which the waters of the Erie Canal pass at a considerable height above the Mohawk River. The tourist making this trip has an extensive view of the valley westward. The nearer waters of the river are broken by willow-grown islands, past which the Mohawk flows. Eastward rise the towering cliffs, crested with pine and cedar, while deep within the gorge their reflected image lies revealed to the eye. Tinged by softened colors, the sunlight pierces the spray rising from the falls, and thrown back again upon itself by the precipitous cliffs, nature's light is blended into a scene of marvelous beauty. Amid such charming surroundings the visitor may wander at will to picturesque nooks or commanding elevations.

[The Great Falls of the Mohawk at Cohoes - 1x | 4x]

The Mohawk Valley, west of Schenectady, with its rugged landscape and rich historical associations, does not exceed the attractiveness of the lower valley eastward, with its great falls, its towering cliffs, and its pastoral scenery. Through this latter region the Troy Division of the Schenectady Railway passes. The Falls at Cohoes are of unusual splendor and are visited annually by thousands of tourists from all parts of the world. Below them the river is shut in by precipitous cliffs as it flows onward to its confluence with the Hudson. At this important point, clustering islands mark the union of the Mohawk and the greater Hudson. Here were enacted the closing scenes of the nation's battle for independence. Here were the headquarters of General Schuyler in the retreat of the American forces before the British under General Burgoyne. The fine old Van Schaick mansion, erected in 1735, in which the American officers were quartered, still stands as a monument to those stirring times. On Peebles Island may still be found the American earthworks. General Schuyler and his army advanced from this point to old Saratoga, now Schuylerville, where Burgoyne surrendered to the American forces on October 17, 1777.

[Aqueduct, where Erie Canal crosses Mohawk River - 1x | 4x]

[Union College, copyright 1905, H. Wedlake - 1x | 4x]

UNION UNIVERSITY

The Mohawk Valley is not without its institutions of learning. Many tourists visit Union College in Schenectady. Its founders petitioned the Legislature for its charter during the Revolutionary War. Six years following, a secondary institution was established, which, in 1795, became Union College, the first non-sectarian institution of higher learning in the country. The new college rapidly became an important influence in the life of the nation. Under the guidance of Dr. Eliphalet Nott, the present buildings were erected from plans drawn by Joseph Jacques Ramee, a noted French architect, in 1813. The spacious grounds, with their interesting drives, the campus with its Chinese idol, the Garden with its magnificent elm under which students for generations have smoked the Pipe of Peace, the College woods with its ancient Indian trail, are associated with the tenderest memories of many graduates. Around the ivygrown buildings are gathered priceless traditions dear to all Sons of Old Union. They were known to such men as Hawley, the father of the modern school system; Spencer, statesman; Tayler Lewis, scholar; Toombs, Fighting Bob of the Confederacy; Halleck, commander-in-chief of the Union forces; Seward, the trusted friend of Lincoln and member of his cabinet; and Arthur, the nation's president.

Union College became the mother of the Greek letter society and is famous to-day for its splendid chapter houses. The Kappa Alpha, the oldest of the fraternities, was organized in 1825. As a pioneer in civil engineering, the first courses available in America were instituted in 1845. Half a century later, courses in electrical engineering were introduced. These were reorganized in 1902, under the professorship of Charles Proteus Steinmetz, the noted mathematician and great electrician. The Department of Electrical Engineering to-day ranks among the foremost. The academic and engineering schools are situated in Schenectady, though the colleges of Law and Medicine, the Dudley Observatory, and the College of Pharmacy are to be found in Albany.

THE HUM OF MACHINERY

The powerful electric locomotive has taken its place beside its rival of steam. Their keen competition extends around the world. Both types of engine are the product of Schenectady industries. The plant of the General Electric Company contains one hundred and fifty buildings, some of which rank as the largest manufacturing buildings on the American continent. Fifty-eight acres of floor space at hardly sufficient to provide room for the seventeen thousand employees. The American Locomotive Company, with sixty-two acres and seven thousand men, represents a equally important industry. The gasoline fire engine manufactured by The Westinghouse Company is attracting wide attention by its wonderful performance and is destined to have a great future.

[College Terrace - 1x | 4x]

THE CITY BEAUTIFUL

Schenectady is a city of natural beauty and commanding scenery. Though its years are many it is thoroughly modern in enterprise. Its streets are well paved, as becomes streets over-arched with towering elms and graceful maples, along which stately residences amid spacious grounds may be found. Hospitality abounds for the tourist in the quaint old city of Dorp. Founded in 1662, by Arendt Van Curler, who was one of the foremost Dutch citizens of his day, the city is one of the oldest in the State. In 1798, it became a municipality, since which time it has grown to be one of the important cities of the world. Many historic buildings of its early days remain, sources of unfailing interest to its visitors.

[The old Glen Sanders House, in Scotia, a suburb of Schenectady, N. Y., built 1713 - 1x | 4x]

THE GLEN HOUSES

West of Schenectady and across the river in the village of Scotia stand the Glen houses, both of which are of ancient construction. They are easily reached by the Scotia line. The earlier of the two, the Glen-Sanders mansion, is of early English design and dates from 1713, although parts of a still earlier house, built about 1668, were embodied in its building. The interior of the house represents a picture of three centuries ago, with its antique furniture, its china and its library, which contains a valuable collection of colonial papers. Near by is the Major Glen house, erected about 1730. It is of quaint Dutch design and faithfully represents the prevailing architecture of its time.

[Old St. George Church, Schenectady, N. Y. - 1x | 4x]

[First Dutch Reformed Church, Schenectady, N. Y. - 1x | 4x]

PUBLIC BUILDINGS

Apart from its institutions of learning and its great industrial plants, Schenectady is a most interesting city. Its churches are among the finest; the First Reformed Dutch Church is one of splendid architecture. Its traditions date back to the early settlement in 1662, although its first edifice was not erected until 1684. The present church stands at the corner of Union and Church streets, one block north of its original site. Of no less interest is St. George's Church, in Ferry Street, erected by the aid of Sir William Johnson and early colonial governors, and begun in 1759. Notable among other houses of worship are the Church of St. John the Evangelist, the First Methodist and First Presbyterian churches. Many others, beautiful in design and modern in construction, scattered through the city.

The public schools, chief among which is the splendid High School, represent fine examples of modern school buildings. When completed, the new federal, county, and municipal buildings will be among the finest of their kind. The new Union Station is preeminently among the finest of the State. The financial and mercantile establishments of the business section are progressive.

[The old Jan Mabie House, Rotterdam - 1x | 9x]

[Governor Yates's House - 1x | 4x]

[Vrooman House, Schenectady, N. Y. - 1x | 4x]

[A relic of colonial days - the Arent Bradt House, near Schenectady - 1x | 4x]

EARLY DUTCH HOMES

Students of Colonial architecture find much to interest them in the old Dutch homes of the county. History records that the Mabie house in Rotterdam is the oldest dwelling in the Mohawk Valley. It is known to have been in use as early as 1706, and probably was erected as early as 1670. The walls are built of heavy stone, which was quarried in the neighboring hills. Under its pointed gable roof, a small attic originally served as a "spy chamber" from which the anxious settlers watched for the approach of hostile Indians. Second in its age is the Yrooman house at the Brandywine Mill. Built of brick, it is probably over two hundred years old. At Johnson's station in Glenville is a large brick building of unknown origin, though of very early date. The Governor Yates house in lower Union Street, Schenectady, was erected in 1735. Many other houses still standing, among which should be mentioned the Bradt house in Rotterdam, date from this same early period.

CAPITAL LIMITED

Leaves Albany for Saratoga on the hour, every hour, from 8.00 A. M. to 7.00 P. M. Fast service, commodious cars.

[7.75" x 3.5" Map of Schenectady Railway and Connections - 1x (75K) | 4x (177K)]

[Upper Platter Kill Falls, near Schenectady, N. Y. - 1x | 4x]

THE FALLS OF THE PLATTER KILL

The Mohawk Valley, rich as it is in its more commanding scenery, has many hidden charms. Far back from the river, among the Rotterdam Hills, the nature-loving tourist may find the Falls of the Platter Kill, sublime and beautiful. Surrounded by the wild splendor of the heavily-wooded hills, much-visited stream plunges magnificently over falls from sixty to one hundred feet high into deep gorges and wild rapids. A well-worn trail follows its course to the river lowlands.

The Sandsea Creek among the hills south of Pattersonville has falls of lesser height, though of the same beauty as those of the Platter Kill.

The Electric Express Company will call for and deliver your baggage, at reasonable rates, in Albany, Troy, Ballston, and Schenectady.

[Lower Platter Kill Falls, near Schenectady, N. Y. - 1x | 4x]

[De Graaf House, near Schenectady, N. Y. - 1x | 4x]

THE BATTLE OF BEUKENDAAL

Passing westward from Schenectady to Amsterdam, the cars of the Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad carry many tourists to Hardin's Crossing. Near by stands a typical "little red school house" and back of the school a glen. At the head of the glen, on July 18, 1748, the battle of the Beukendaal was fought. There the militia, having been ambuscaded by the Indians, made a memorable fight. Not far distant was the De Graaf home, from which the father and son had been carried captive by the fierce Algonquins two years earlier. The militia retreated to the De Graaf house, leaving twenty-six stalwart Maalwyck farmers upon the field of battle. Others were carried into captivity.

Farther up the valley, across the lands of Maalwyck, so called because of the whirlbacks in the winding river, stands old Yantapuchaberg, 1,385 feet high. Among the Glenville hills opposite lies the valley of the Tequetsera, from which the Indian procured his war paint. The ravine through which the creek runs is of unusual picturesqueness and may be entered at Johnson's station.

[The Adrintha, Swart Hill, near Amsterdam, N. Y. - 1x | 4x]

[The Fall of Tequetsera, near Old Indian Paint Spring, Johnson's Station, near Hoffmans - 1x | 4x]

WOLF HOLLOW

Few spots offer more of interest and charm to the tourist than Wolf Hollow, a deep gorge leading back from Hoffmans into the Glenville hills. The last battle between the Mohicans and the Mohawks was fought at the head of the hollow upon a hill still known as Towereune. Wolf Hollow is of great interest to students of geology. The environing hills of the Mohawk Valley show a series of "geological faults," of which the fault at Wolf Hollow is the most eastern. Twisted and torn by a great upheaval the rock strata show unusual dislocation. The neighborhood is rich in fossils and is valued by the botanist as well for its varied flora. The lover of Nature at her best will be well repaid for a trip to this most interesting and beautiful place.

Not far distant from Cranesville, Lewis Creek plunges over Buttermilk Falls amid the roar and the spray of a wild woodland scene.

[Old Fort Johnson, Amsterdam, N. Y., built by Sir William Johnson, 1742, who also planted the grove of ancient locust trees - 1x | 4x]

OLD FORT JOHNSON

Amsterdam, famous for its carpet industry, was the early home of William Johnson, a faithful friend of the red man. Its settlement dates from 1793. Here the great Indian commissioner built a stone mansion in 1742, now the home of the Montgomery County Historical Society. Many tourists visit it to see its valuable collection of relics. Near by stands the mansion of Sir Guy Johnson, erected subsequently to the building of old Fort Johnson by Sir William.

West of Amsterdam, Tribes Hill has a most commanding view of the river valley. It is a famous spot in history. Northward is Johnstown, where Johnson Hall is the center of interest. The ancient baronial estate of Sir William Johnson marks the spot where the Indian and the white man met on equal footing, in the stirring days which preceded the war of the Revolution. The present house dates from 1763. Gloversville and Johnstown share alike in the great glove industry, which has made both renowned. From Gloversville, Sacandaga Park, Broadalbin and Mountain Lake, all much visited, may be easily reached.

[View of Troy from Prospect Park looking north - Cohoes in the distance - 1x | 4x]

[Prospect Park, Troy, N. Y. - 1x | 4x]

THE TROY DIVISION

The excursion from Schenectady to Troy is a constant delight to the traveler. Many points of vantage reveal the distant mountains. Northward the Adirondacks rise majestically; southward the Helderbergs and the Catskills are sharply outlined on the horizon; and to the east, the Green Mountains add their charm. The region is one of great beauty. Many streams, lying for the most part in deep ravines, afford endless opportunity for the camera. The Lishas Kill near Niskayuna traverses the hunting grounds of the Conistigione Indians, whose mounds are still to be seen in the vicinity of the little hamlet, itself once the site of an Indian village.

Mother Ann Lee, founder of the American Shakers, established a settlement near the present Stop 25 in August, 1774. The great buildings and barns, common with the Shakers, are of interest, and visitors to the settlement are always given a welcome.

Visscher's Ferry is an active scene under the work of the builders of the Barge Canal. Other points of interest follow as the tourist makes his way to Troy. The United States Arsenal at Watervliet, with its manufacture of heavy ordnance, attracts many visitors. Crossing the Hudson, arrival is made at Troy, the home of the collar industry of the world.

THE ALBANY DIVISION

The traditional capital of the Mohawk Indians during the sixteenth century was Scho-no-we, now believed to be the present site of Schenectady. Research has failed, however, to authenticate this early tradition, although it is clear that the earliest Mohawk strongholds were situated between Scho-no-we and Kinaquarione, as Towereune Hill at Hoffmans was first known. Arendt Van Curler visited Scho-no-we in 1642, and then declared it to be "the most beautiful spot the eye of man had ever beheld."

On his eventful journey to the land of the Mohawk, Van Curler is thought to have followed the Tawasentha trail, thereby passing under the Helderberg cliffs and along the banks of a stream now known as the Normans Kill. This beautiful stream rises among the Rotterdam Hills and empties into the Hudson not far below Albany. Numerous arrow-heads still abound along the Tawasentha trail and bear witness of its early relation to the Mohawk hunting grounds. This early trail across the Pine Plains is now paralleled by the Albany Division of the Schenectady Railway Company, though its original course lies somewhat to the south of the present highway.

THE CAPITAL LIMITED

Across the Pine Plains the "Capital Limited" cars pass swiftly in their journey from Albany to Saratoga. The excellence of its roadbed, its modern equipment, and efficient service have made this route deservedly popular with tourists. From Albany and Schenectady, it is a delightful trip to Saratoga, famed throughout the civilized world for its healthful mineral waters. The summer service of the "Capital Limited" is much used by Adirondack visitors.

The interurban cars running to Albany leave Schenectady by way of State Street. They pass over ground once occupied by the Oneida and Tuscarora Indians, who remained faithful to the American cause in the days of the Revolution. Quartered in huts of log or bark, they enjoyed protection from their fellow Iroquois who had followed Sir John Johnson into Canada and had espoused the British cause.

The Albany line of the Schenectady Railway is a splendid example of interurban rapid transit. It crosses the Pine Plains amid great sand-dunes and terminates at the Capital city. Relics of the pre-revolutionary days are constantly found on these plains.

Southward from the Albany road, the Helderbergs rise splendidly against the sky. Their great precipices are noticeable from Stop 6 to best advantage. Locust Grove, midway between the cities, encloses one of the finest country homes in the State, the residence of the late Senator Charles Stanford, brother of Leland Stanford, the founder of California's great university bearing his name.

ANCIENT FORT ORANGE

Albany, the second oldest settlement in the original thirteen States, is a veritable Mecca to the tourist. Following the venturesome navigator, Henry Hudson, who sailed northward from Manhattan in his queer craft, the "Half Moon," the early Dutch traders made their way and established a trading post on a small island at the mouth of Tawasentha Creek. The post was soon carried away by the flood waters of the Hudson. Fort Willemstadt was then erected near the site of the present Capitol and later became known as Fort Frederick. Fort Orange was established in 1623, on the river front near Steamboat Square. With the arrival of the English, in 1664, the settlement was renamed Albany. The present municipality of Albany dates from 1686. The first legislature met in 1797, and, thereafter, it became the State Capital.

[Schuyler Mansion, Albany, N. Y. - 1x | 4x]

The tourist who visits Albany finds much of interest apart from the magnificent Capitol itself. The State Hall, once the Capitol, erected in 1842, and the Geological Hall, are places of interest. A fine City Hall is much admired by the lovers of architecture. The telegraph instrument was perfected in the Albany Academy. The Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception and All Saints Cathedral are the city's two finest churches. Many ancient houses still remain; the Schuyler mansion built in 1760; the Rensselaer Manor House, in 1642, and the Forbes mansion of about the same early date; all typifying the best life of their time. Albany prides itself upon having eleven attractive parks.

THE SARATOGA DIVISION

Whether en route to their favorite hunting ground or intent upon attacking the French settlements, the Iroquois invariably followed the Saratoga trail. Few of the many tourists who travel northward from Schenectady know that the pretty stream which parallels the Saratoga line was once the greatest of Indian trails. Alplaus Creek was then followed to a point near the Burnt Hills Road where a portage was made to the head of Ballston Lake. Over this beautiful sheet of water the canoeist paddled and from its outlet made a second carry to the Mourning Kill; thence he passed down stream to the Kayaderosseras and on to Saratoga Lake. Easy passage was then possible through Fish Creek to the Hudson. The trail terminated at old Saratoga, which is now Schuylerville. If the journey was northward from this point, passage was made through Wood Creek and Lake Champlain.

Relic hunters find rich reward in the country near the mouth of Alplaus Creek, where the Mohawk, who was exceptionally fond of fresh-water clams, was able to gratify his taste, as clams were abundant at this point. Near by stood the site of a village camp where even to-day the refuse of the shells may be found with numerous fragments of Indian pottery and stone implements. North of the Outlet Road, in the adjacent woods, still flows from a bubbling spring splendid water to which the thirsty redskins resorted. An exceptional stone hatchet of early date was recently found near by. Along the Mourning Kill have been found many relics, some of which, so tradition runs, tell of a great battle between the Mohawks and the Algonquins.

[Ballston Lake - 1x | 4x]

THE GEM OF LAKES

"The happy valley of the healing waters" was regarded by the Indians as the favored gift of the Great Spirit. This valley is noted for its beautiful scenery, its wonderful mineral springs, and its sparkling lakes. Ballston Lake was known as Shenantaha or the "deer waters." Friend and foe might abide upon its shores in peace and safety according to a pretty tradition. The lake provided good fishing. To its waters, the deer came. Over its surface sped the messenger of peace tidings or hurried the war canoes of the savage tribes. Then, as now, it was a glorious spot, a perfect gem, among many lakes. Modern summer cottages line its shores, and swift motor boats now have right of way over its surface.

[Along the Shore - Ballston Lake - 1x | 4x]

[The Landing at Forest Park - 1x | 4x]

THE FIRST CLEARING

North of Forest Park, at Hawkwood Station, a magnificent elm stands in the center of a clearing. This elm marks the site of the first clearing north of Schenectady, in which the McDonald cabin long stood. A burial plot near by is sacred to the memory of the sturdy pioneers who first made their homes in the wilderness. Hawkwood itself stands beyond the hill and represents an estate granted by Queen Anne in 1708.

Seven years after the McDonalds made their clearing and built their cabins, Rev. Eliphalet Ball settled a colony at the foot of the lake. This settlement, which to-day is Ballston Center, became the first county seat of Saratoga. Earthen breastworks were thrown around its meeting house, so frequently were attacks made by the savage redskins and the Tories of the north. When, five years later, Colonel Munro descended with his British forces upon the colony, many of its company were slain. A second attack the following year, inspired by the notorious renegade, Joe Betty, further destroyed the settlement. In 1816, the county seat was moved to Ballston Spa.

[High Street, Ballston Spa - 1x | 4x]

FOREST PARK

Forest Park is ideally situated at the head of Ballston Lake and represents a splendid natural preserve. From the rustic station a charming woodpath leads to the lake shore within the park grounds, where adequate facilities exist for boating and bathing. Hundreds of picnickers find their way to its many pleasures. Those who enjoy the water may find the yacht "Comanche" at their service, and a fleet of modern steel rowboats. Abundant provision for the comfort of guests is made at the Forest Park Inn. Dancing in the large pavilion, surrounded as it is by enclosing trees, offers its great attraction. Large audiences hear the concerts given upon the high bluff which overlooks the quiet lake.

[Brookside, Ballston Spa, famous in early history - 1x | 4x]

[Mourning Kill Bridge, High Street, Ballston Spa, N. Y. - 1x | 4x]

HISTORIC BALLSTON

Lying midway in the valley of "crooked stream," where the Kayaderosseras and the Mourning Kill unite, upon the once favorite hunting ground of both the Iroquois and the Algonquins, Ballston Spa now stands. This village, a century ago, was America's foremost watering place. Saratoga achieved its present distinction only when Ballston's early springs failed. "The Last of the Mohicans," by J. Fennimore Cooper, makes the hill near "Brooksides" the scene of a dramatic climax.

VILLAGE SCENES

The Spa noted throughout the country at the beginning of the nineteenth century attracted the wealth and fashion of the world. The Sans Souci was then the largest summer hotel on the western continent and saw many famous occasions. To-day, though its springs are valued for their medicinal properties, Ballston is less known than Saratoga. The quiet village has beauty of its own, however, for magnificent over-arching elms shade its streets and surround its homes. Along the crooked course of the Kayaderosseras Creek and through an unusually picturesque region, the Eastern New York Railway runs to Middle Grove. The trip is one having splendid mountain scenery.

THE QUEEN OF WATERING PLACES

Saratoga owes its fame and prosperity to its medicinal springs. These were known to the Indians long before the white man came. Sir William Johnson was the first to drink of their sparkling waters. Attended by his faithful Mohawks, carried from Schenectady through the forest on a litter, he sought their healing power. General Schuyler also was benefited by their curative qualities. His summer cottage there was the first of many, and to it he constructed the highway from his mansion at old Saratoga on the Hudson River. The first hostelry was built in 1790. Two years afterward, Governor Gilman, of New Hampshire, discovered a second spring and others were soon found. Centuries ago, the earth's surface was dislocated and broken by an earthquake, leaving a fault which extends over ten miles in length and along the borders of which thirty springs of great medicinal value have been found. These springs differ widely in their characteristics and are visited annually by thousands of pilgrims seeking restoration to health.

[Old View, Saratoga Springs - 1x | 4x]

THE GREATEST OF RESORTS

The original frontier hamlet with its few poor cabins has grown to a great summer resort. Saratoga lies at the threshold of the Adirondacks. The interurban cars of the Schenectady Railway Company commands the scenery of the region from many advantageous points of view. The Luzerne mountains on the right and the Kayaderosseras hills on the left enclose a charming valley. Saratoga, the home of hotels, has many attractions. Thousands attend its races, visit its gardens, and enjoy its lake. During the season, Broadway is a scene of great activity.

[Steamer "Alice," at Kaydeross Park - 1x | 4x]

SARATOGA LAKE

Closely associated with Saratoga Springs is its beautiful lake, famous for its comfortable inns and their fish dinners. Some of the inns have been catering to a fastidious public for half a century, so that a Saratoga Lake dinner is an epicurean feast. The lake stretches between Sulphur Springs and Snake Hill to its outlet. Chief among the attractive excursions from Saratoga Springs is the trolley trip to Kaydeross Park on the lake. Good bass fishing is to be had in season and the lake is much visited by lovers of the rod.

Mt. McGregor was made historic by the presence of General Grant. The great president made his home there part of the time prior to his death. Mt. McGregor has since been a place of pilgrimage. It is reached by a carriage drive from Saratoga. The outlook from the hilltop is superb and the Grant relics are of great interest.

[Saratoga Lake - North from Cliff House - 1x | 4x]

[Saratoga Lake - South End - 1x | 4x]

TROLLEY TRIPS TO HISTORIC LANDMARKS AND PICTURESQUE NOOKS

Ballston Lake (Forest Park), Ballston Spa, Saratoga Springs, Saratoga Lake, Lake George, Warrensburgh, Sacandaga Park. Send for our publication, Forty-four Trips by Trolley to Historical Landmarks and Points of Scenic Beauty.

[7.75" x 3.5" Map of Lake George especially prepared for the Schenectady Railway - 1x (89K) | 4x (225K)]

POETIC CHARM

"Lake George is undoubtedly the most picturesque summer resort in America. Wherever the English language is spoken, its beauty has been sung. It has a poetic charm and a delicacy of outline that win the love and admiration of every beholder. Queenly in its majesty, peerless in its beauty, with a wealth of historic fact and legendary lore, idyllic, dreamy, exquisitely lovely, it holds the mind and the senses captive."
"A Summer Paradise."

THE GATEWAY OF THE MOUNTAINS

The lower Adirondacks offer many inducements to the week-end tourist. Penetrating the mountain country, the Hudson Valley Railroad, running north from Saratoga and connecting with the "Capital Limited" of the Schenectady Railway, affords easy access to many charming places of popular resort within short traveling distances.

North of Saratoga the cars foliow the Luzerne Mountains toward Glens Falls. Cooper's cave, made famous through its association with Uncas, perpetuates the tradition relating to the "Last of the Mohicans." The cave is visited by large numbers of people and may be seen on the right of the falls after crossing the Hudson.

Glens Falls possesses great paper mills and has an active business life. Beyond, the cars pass through a defile formed by the Luzerne Range and French Mountain. A marble headstone marks the spot where heroic Colonel Williams of the New England militia fell in the battle of Lake George. His forces were obliged to retreat before the troops of Baron Dieskau, commander of the French-Canadians, although they were soon destined to suffer defeat themselves, at the hands of Colonel William Johnson's colonists. Near by, Bloody Pond was the scene of conflict between the French and British arms. The casualties of a hard day's fighting, on September 8, 1755, include nearly seven hundred men.

[Bloody Pond - near Lake George - 1x | 4x]

LAKE GEORGE

As the cars approach Lake George the scenery rapidly changes, though it is always beautiful. This splendid lake was called "Le Lac Sainte Sacrement" by Father Jogues, a faithful missionary and martyr, whom death overcame at a Mohawk village west of Schenectady. King George's name was afterwards bestowed by General Johnson upon the lake now so famous in history. The village of Lake George has its stately hotel, known to travelers as The Fort William Henry.

[Landing At Lake George - 1x | 4x]

[Kattskill Bay, Lake George - 1x | 4x]

HISTORIC AND GRAND

The Andia-to-roc-te of the Indian, the queen of all American lakes, is not surpassed even by foreign waters. The Lake George country is best appreciated by lovers of the beautiful. As a great summer resort, cottages and hostelries without number follow its thirty and more miles of shore. The Sagamore, the Horicon, and the Mohican are largely patronized and splendid boats add their indispensable service to the pleasures of the lake dwellers. Excursions may be made to the ruin of old Fort Ticonderoga. Black Mountain, Prospect Mountain, and Roger's Rock are points of interest. Well-kept roads make carriage driving a pleasure and many woodland pathways attract those who love to walk aforest and afield. Among the pines in the Fort William Henry Hotel Park, the ruins of the earthworks still remain. The ruins of Fort George and Fort Gage are within easy walking distance.

[Scene of Fort George Ruins - 1x | 4x]

General Johnson defeated Baron Dieskau on the site of Fort William Henry, and two years later on the same field Colonel Munro withstood the fierce assault of General Montcalm, as valiantly as unsuccessfully, for he was forced to surrender on August 9, 1758. His soldiers perished in unknown numbers during the massacre which followed his surrender. Fort George was built by General Amherst in 1759.

WARRENSBURG

Among the forest-clad mountains in the beautiful valley northward, where the Schroon River flows into the Hudson, Warrensburg bids fair for the favor of travelers. The village enjoys its forest surroundings. Many streams and good fishing abound. Brant Lake, Schroon Lake, and Loon Lake, all have their summer attractions. Stage connections from Warrensburg to Thurman give access to the more remote though none the less attractive region by way of the Delaware & Hudson Railroad.

THE BATTLE OF SARATOGA

Historians affirm that the battle which turned the British forces backward in their victorious march south saved the Colonies. The battle of Saratoga, one of the great battles of all times, prepared the way for the Declaration of Independence. The triumphant red-coats had taken Fort Ticonderoga and were marching upon Albany. Before the superior numbers of the enemy, the American forces had retreated until at the mouth of the Mohawk, breastworks were thrown up for final resistance. Upon that stand the supremacy of the valley depended. The American soldiers occupied the heights in the rear of Bemis' tavern, separated by a deep ravine from the Freeman farm where the French troops were established. The contending enemies engaged in battle on September 19, 1777. When night fell, victory had come to the colonists, for they had checked the advance of the enemy. On October 7th a second battle followed, which resulted favorably for the American forces. General Burgoyne then withdrew to the heights of old Saratoga, where he was besieged and forced to surrender. His articles of capitulation were signed on October 16th. The formal surrender occurred the next day and the haughty Burgoyne with his entire army became prisoners of war. The battle monument - a great shaft of granite - may be seen from the Hudson Valley cars as they pass through Schuylerville.

[Schuyler Mansion, Schuylerville, N. Y. - 1x | 4x]

RATES OF FARE BETWEEN ALBANY AND

                      One Way      Round Trip

Schenectady           $ 0.25         $ 0.50
Ballston Lake            .40            .80
Ballston Spa             .50           1.00
Saratoga                 .60           1.20
Glens Falls             1.10           2.20
Lake George             1.35           2.70
Warrensburg             1.50           3.00
Amsterdam                .50            .95
Johnstown                .85           1.55
Gloversville             .95           1.70
Sacandaga Park          ....           1.95

GENERAL INFORMATION

The Schenectady Railway, in addition to serving the territory through which its lines are operated, makes connections with numerous other transportation lines and their several terminals, thereby reaching the entire territory covered by the Mohawk and Hudson Valleys and Eastern Adirondacks.

These connections are as follows:

AT TROY:

Hudson Valley Railway, for Waterford, Mechanicsville, Round Lake, Stillwater, Schuylerville, and Greenwich.

Troy & New England Railway, for West Sand Lake and Averill Park.

United Traction Co., for Rensselaer Park, Cohoes, and Waterford.

Delaware & Hudson Co., New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, and Boston & Maine Railroad, for points north and east.

Citizens Line boats, for New York.

AT ALBANY:

Albany & Hudson Railway, for Electric Park, Niversville, Kinderhook, and Hudson.

United Traction Co., for Rensselaer, Troy, Watervliet, and all points in the city of Albany.

People's Line boats, for New York.

Hudson River Day Line boats, for Hudson, Catskill, Kingston, West Point, and New York.

Central Hudson Steamboat Co., for Newburg and intermediate points.

New York Central & Hudson River Railroad, Delaware & Hudson Co., Boston & Maine Railroad, Boston & Albany Railroad, and West Shore Railroad, for points north, east, south, and west.

AT SARATOGA:

Hudson Valley Railway, for Glens Falls, Fort Edward, Sandy Hill, Lake George, and Warrensburg.

Delaware & Hudson Co., for Lake George and points in the Adirondack Mountains.

AT BALLSTON SPA:

Hudson Valley Railway, for Round Lake and Mechanicsville.

Eastern New York Railway, for Rock City Falls and Middle Grove.

AT SCHENECTADY:

Fonda, Johnstown & Gloversville Railroad, for Amsterdam, Gloversville, Sacandaga Park, Broadalbin, and intermediate points.

New York Central & Hudson River Railroad and Delaware & Hudson Co., for points north, east, south, and west.

Boston & Maine Railroad, for Rotterdam Junction, Mechanicsville, and points east.

The Schenectady Railway is prepared to furnish folders and other printed information upon request. Special attention is given to excursion parties, and chartered cars may be secured between all points on its system.

For further information and rates address Transportation Department

SCHENECTADY RAILWAY COMPANY
SCHENECTADY, N. Y.

[printed by] THE MATTHEWS-NORTHRUP WORKS, BUFFALO, CLEVELAND, AND NEW YORK

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